An experimental study on cutting forces and surface roughness in MQL milling of aluminum 6061

  • 1 Yildiz Technical University, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Besiktas, Istanbul, Turkey


The minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) and dry machining operations are two types of environmentally friendly processes that have potentials to replace with conventional cooling methods. In recent years, the studies have been performed on the environmentfriendly lubrication methods such as MQL method in machining operations. These studies have also focused on the usage of vegetable cutting fluids instead of mineral based oils due to increasing awareness to the environment and human health. In this experimental study, Aluminum 6061 was machined under dry and MQL conditions and the cutting force components and surface roughness values were measured. The experiments were carried out by CNC milling machine tool at three different cutting speeds and constant depth of cut and feed. The vegetable cutting fluid was pulverized to the rake face by using single nozzle and double nozzles at two flow rates during MQL milling. Cutting force components and surface roughness values were compared for minimum quantity lubrication and dry milling operations of Aluminum 6061.



  1. R.K Suresh, G.Krishnaiah, P.Venkataramaiah. An Experimental Investigation with Minimum Quantity Lubrication and its Comparison with Various Vegetable Oil Based Cutting Fluids during Turning. Materials Today: Proceedings 4 (2017) 8758–8768.
  2. Anuj Kumar Sharma, Arun Kumar Tiwari, Amit Rai Dixit. Effects of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in machining processes using conventional and nano fluid based cutting fluids: A comprehensive review. Journal of Cleaner Production 127 (2016) 1-18.
  3. Zhiqiang Liu, Qinglong An, Jinyang Xu, Ming Chen, Shu Han. Wear performance of (nc-AlTiN)/(a-Si3N4) coating and (nc-AlCrN)/(a-Si3N4) coating in high speed machining of titanium alloys under dry and minimum quantity lubrication(MQL) conditions. Wear 305(2013)249– 259.
  4. Radoslaw W.Maruda , Grzegorz M.Krolczyk , Eugene Feldshtein, Piotr Nieslony ,Bozena Tyliszczak , Franci Pusavec. Tool wear characterizations in finish turning of AISI1045 carbon steel for MQCL conditions. Wear372-373(2017)54–67.
  5. O. Pereira, J.E. Martín-Alfonso, A. Rodríguez, A. Calleja, A. Fernandez-Valdivielso , L.N. Lopez de Lacallei. Sustainability analysis of lubricant oils for minimum quantity lubrication based on their triborheological performance. Journal of Cleaner Production 164 (2017) 1419- 1429.
  6. Anil Kumar, Sudarsan Ghosh, S. Aravindan. Grinding performance improvement of silicon nitride ceramics by utilizing nanofluids. Ceramics International 43 (2017) 13411–13421.
  7. E.Benedicto, D.Carouc, E.M.Rubio. Technical, Economic and Environmental Review of the Lubrication/Cooling Systems used in Machining Processes. Advances in Material & Processing Technologies Conference, Procedia Engineering 184 (2017) 99 – 116.
  8. Ismet Hari Mulyadi, Vincent Aizebeoje Balogun, Paul T. Mativenga. Environmental performance evaluation of different cutting environments when milling H13 tool steel. Journal of Cleaner Production 108 (2015) 110-120.
  9. Yogie Rinaldy Ginting, Brian Boswell, Wahidul Biswas and Nazrul Islam. Advancing Environmentally Conscious Machining.12th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing. Procedia CIRP 26 (2015) 391 – 396.
  10. Bruce L. Tai, David A. Stephenson, Richard J. Furness, Albert J. Shih. Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL) in Automotive Powertrain Machining. 6th CIRP International Conference on High Performance Cutting, HPC2014, Procedia CIRP 14 (2014) 523 –528.
  11. F. Berzosa, B. de Agustina, E.M. Rubio. Tool Selection in Drilling of Magnesium UNSM11917 Pieces under Dry and MQL Conditions based on Surface Roughness. Advances in Material & Processing Technologies Conference, Procedia Engineering 184 (2017) 117 – 127.
  12. Y. Sun, B. Huang, D.A. Puleo, I.S. Jawahir. Enhanced Machinability of Ti-5553 Alloy from Cryogenic Machining: Comparison with MQL and Flood-cooled Machining and Modelling. 15th CIRP Conference on Modelling of Machining Operations, Procedia CIRP 31 (2015) 477 – 482.
  13. Sanjeev Kumar, Dilbag Singh, Nirmal S. Kalsi. Analysis of Surface Roughness during Machining of Hardened AISI 4340 Steel using Minimum Quantity lubrication. 5th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization (ICMPC 2016), Materials Today: Proceedings 4 (2017) 3627–3635.
  14. M.Venkata Ramana. Optimization and Influence of Process Parameters on Surface Roughness in Turning of Titanium Alloy under Different Lubricant Conditions. ICAAMM-2016, Materials Today: Proceedings 4 (2017) 8328–8335.
  15. Gleiton de Paula Oliveira, Maria Cindra Fonseca, Anna Carla Araujo. Residual stresses and cutting forces in cryogenic milling of Inconel 718. 8th CIRP Conference on High Performance Cutting (HPC 2018) Procedia CIRP 77 (2018) 211–214.
  16. Kamal Kishore Joshi, Ramanuj Kumar, Anurag. An Experimental Investigations in Turning of Incoloy 800 in Dry, MQL and Flood Cooling Conditions. 2nd International Conference on Materials Manufacturing and Design Engineering , Procedia Manufacturing 20 (2018) 350–357.
  17. K. Aslantas, A. Çiçek. The effects of cooling/lubrication techniques on cutting performance in micro-milling of Inconel 718 super alloy. 8th CIRP Conference on High Performance Cutting (HPC 2018), Procedia CIRP 00 (2018) 000–000.
  18. Kishor Kumar Gajrani, M. Ravi Sankar. Past and Current Status of Eco-Friendly Vegetable Oil Based Metal Cutting Fluids. 5th International Conference of Materials Processing and Characterization (ICMPC 2016), Materials Today: Proceedings 4 (2017) 3786–3795.

Article full text

Download PDF