Determination of the quality of renovation layers in tribological conditions

  • 1 Technical university in Kosice, Letna 9 Kosice 04001, Slovakia


Molds designed for high-pressure casting of aluminum are exposed to very intense thermal, mechanical but also chemical stress during their operation. This stress leads to a synergistic effect of a combination of high-temperature corrosion processes in molten metals, under real conditions associated with mechanical wear. High-temperature corrosion in the environment of liquid metals occurs in the foundry industry, when casting molten metal most often into steel molds. Repair of worn parts of molds by welding, which can be performed even after their irreversible surface degradation, is a very efficient, cost-effective and envi-ronmentally acceptable form of their maintenance, while the chemical and physical properties are welded layers if they exceed the properties of the original material.



  1. Changrong Chen et al.: Energy based approach to thermal fatigue life of tool steels for die casting dies. In: International Journal of Fatigue Volume 92, Part 1, November 2016, Pages 166- 178.
  2. J. Lin et al.: Design methodology for optimized die coatings: The case for aluminum pressure die-casting In: Surface and Coatings Technology 201 (2006) pp. 2930–2941.
  3. K. Domkin, J.H. Hattel, J. Thorborg, Modeling of high temperature- and diffusion-controlled die soldering in aluminum high pressure die casting, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 209 (8) (2009) 4051–4061.
  4. Sundqvist M., Hogmark S.: Effects of liquid aluminium on hot-work tool steel Tribol. Int. 26 (1993) in International Journal of Fatigue p. 129.
  5. H. Zhu, J. Guo, J. Jia, Experimental study and theoretical analysis on die soldering in aluminum die casting, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 123 (2) (2002) 229–235.
  6. Z.W. Chen, M.Z. Jahedi, Die erosion and its effect on soldering formation in high pressure die casting of aluminium alloys, Mater. Des. 20 (6) (1999) 303–309.
  7. K . Venkatesan, R. Shivpuri, Experimental and numerical investigation of the effect of process parameters on the erosive wear of die casting dies, J. Mater. Eng. Perform. 4 (2) (1995) 166–174. R. Markežič et al. Engineering Failure Analys is 95 (2019) 171– 180179.
  8. A Mohammed, M.B. Marshall, R. Lewis, Development of a method for assessing erosive wear damage on dies used in aluminium casting, Wear 332–333 (2015)1215–1224.
  9. LF. Hou, Y.H. Wei, Y.G. Li, B.S. Liu, H.Y. Du, C.L. Guo, Erosion process analysis of die-casting inserts for magnesium alloy components, Eng. Fail. Anal. 33 (2013)457–564.
  10. D.W.C. Baker, K.H. Jolliffe, D. Pearson, The resistance of materials to impact erosion damage, Philos. Trans. R. Soc. A Math. Phys. Eng. Sci. 260 (1110) (1966) 193–203.
  11. Persson, S. Hogmark, J. Bergström, Temperature profiles and conditions for thermal fatigue cracking in brass die casting dies, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 152(2) (2004) 228–236.
  12. C. Rosbrook, Analysis of Thermal Fatigue and Heat Checking in Die-Casting Dies: A Finite Element Approach, PhD thesis Ohio State University, 1992.
  13. F. Medjedoub, G. Dour, S. Le Roux, P. Lamesle, M. Salem, P. Hairy, F. Rézaï-Aria, Experimental conditions and environment effects on thermal fatigue damageaccumulation and life of die-casting steel X38CrMoV5 (AISI H11), Int. J. Microstruct. Mater. Propert. 3 (2–3) (2008).
  14. P. Hansson, “Modern prehardened tool steels in d ie-casting applications,” Materials and Manufacturing Processes, vol. 24, no. 7-8, pp. 824–827, 2009.
  15. Uddeholm, “Dievar,” 2014, (18.10.2021) internet:
  16. D. Klobčar, J. Tušek, B. Taljat, Thermal fatigue of materials for die-casting tooling, Mater. Sci. Eng. A 472 (1) (2008) 198–207.
  17. D. Schwam, J. F. Wallace, and S. Birceanu, “Die Materials for Critical Applications and Increased Production Rates,” Case Western Reserve University, 2002.
  18. Methodical measurement and evaluation of adhesive cohesive behavior of thin film - substrate systems, 2005, (19.10.2021) internet:
  19. J. Tkáčová,E.Zdravecká,E. Evin,M. Tomáš,D. Jakubéczyová: Koroze a ochranamateriálu 63(4) 159-166 (2019).
  20. D. Klobčar, et al.: Thermo fatigue cracking of die casting d ies. In: Engineering Faliure Analysis Volume 20, March 2012, pp. 43- 53.

Article full text

Download PDF