The Effect of Vanadium, Niobium and Boron on Microstructure, Mechanical and Corrosion Properties of High-Chromium White Cast Irons

  • 1 University of Montenegro, Faculty of Metallurgy and Technology, Montenegro
  • 2 University of Belgrade, Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Serbia


The influence of the vanadium, niobium and boron addition on properties of high-chromium white cast iron alloys for grinding balls is investigated in this paper. These alloying elements were individually added to the high-chromium white cast iron alloys with monitoring of changes in microstructure, corrosion rate, and mechanical properties in the as-cast conditions. The microstructure in all tested alloys consists of primary austenite dendrites and eutectic colonies, which consist of M7C3 carbides and austenite. The addition of V, Nb or B affects, to a greater or lesser extent, the size, morphology and volume fraction of both primary austenite dendrites and eutectic colonies. Samples of iron alloyed with vanadium and boron have a much finer structure than unmodified (base) alloy and niobium alloyed iron sample. Vanadium affects the decrease in the volume fraction of the primary austenitic phase, and the increase in the volume fraction of eutectic colonies, and thus the eutectic carbide phase in hypoeutectic alloys of high-chromium iron. The tested alloys have a comparable values of average hardness in the cross section of cast balls, as well as compressive yield strength, noting that the addition of vanadium increases the hardness, while boron addition increases the compressive yield stress. The single addition of all of three tested alloying elements shifts the corrosion potentials (and Tafel curves) of modified high-chromium white irons toward less negative values. The most favorable values of mechanical and corrosion properties were measured for the iron modified with 0.021 % of boron.



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