Wind Energy in Albania, a Factor in the Decarbonization of the Energy Sector in the Region

  • 1 Department of Energy, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Polytechnic University of Tirana, Albania
  • 2 Department of Manufacturing and Civil Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology in Gjøvik, Norway


Albania has significant renewable energy resource potential from hydro, wind and solar energy. It is a special case regarding electricity generation because most of (99%) is provided using large and medium hydro power plants. So, energy generation in Albania is free from greenhouse gas emissions. But since hydrological conditions change from year to year, the country has been forced to support the import of electricity from countries in the region and mainly from Kosovo. The use of wind energy in Albania would not only reduce dependence on imports but also would affect the decarbonization of the energy sector in the region, which is supported by fossil resources. This study estimates the amount of CO2 that could be reduced if a renewable energy source, such as wind energy, would replace energy generation from the use of fossil fuels sources. In case when the energy is generated from coal thermal power plants in Kosovo, emitting an average of 1,205 tCO2/MWh, results in reduction of 36,632.5 tCO2 for generating 30.6 GWh electricity yearly and in case when electricity generation is from Vlora gas power plant, emitting an average of 0.341 tCO2/MWh results in reduction of 10,379.3 tCO2 for the same amount of electricity generated in first case.



  1. Victor D. G., D. Zhou, E. H. M. Ahmed, P. K. Dadhich, J. G. J. Oliver, H-H. Rogner, K. Sheikho, and M. Yamaguchi, (2014): Introductory Chapter. In: Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. p. 113.
  2. IPCC AR6 WG1: Summary for Policymakers, (2021). p. 8-9.
  3. EEA Report. Annual European Union greenhouse gas inventory 1990-2015 and inventory report 2017. (2017) p.12/963.
  4. World Energy Council. World Energy Scenarios. Composing energy futures to 2050. (2013). p. 5-15.
  5. EIA. International Energy Outlook 2021. (2021) Available from:
  6. T. Nakata, D. Silva, M. Rodionov. “Application of energy system models for designing a low-carbon society” ELSEVIER Progress in Energy and Combustion Science 37 (2011) p. 462-502.
  7. IEA. World Energy Outlook 2020. Chapter 3: Building on a sustainable recovery. (2020) p. 104-105
  8. IRENA World Energy Transitions Outlook: 1.50C Pathway, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi. (2021). p. 20.
  9. IEA. World Energy Outlook 2020. Chapter 6: Outlook for electricity. (2020) p. 250.
  10. C. Lago, A. Prades, C. Oltra, Y. Lechon, A. Pullen, H. Auer. Wind Energy – The facts. Part 5: “Environment” Available from:
  11. R.J. Barthelemie, S.C. Pryor. “Potential contribution of wind energy to climate change mitigation” Nature Climate Change 4 (2014) p. 684-688.
  12. I. Kumar, W.E. Tyner, K.C.Sinha. “Input-output life cycle environmental assessment of greenhouse gas emissions from utility scale wind energy in the United States” ELSEVIER Energy Policy Volume 89 (2016) p. 294-301.
  13. R. Saidur, N.A. Rahim, M.R. Islam, K.H. Solangi. “Environmental impact of wind energy” ELSEVIER Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews 15 (2011) p. 2423-2430.
  14. NREL “Energy Analysis” Life Cycle assessment Harmonization. Available from:
  15. M. Sattler, A. Alsaleh. “Comprehensive life cycle assessment of large wind turbines in the US” Clean Technology Environment Policy 21, (2019) p. 887-903
  16. V. Schipani “Wind Energy’s Carbon Footprint” (2018). Available from:
  17. European Commission, “Albania 2021 Report” Strasbourg, 19.10.2021 SWD(2021) 289 final. Pg. 108-109. Available from: 2021_en
  18. ERE. (2018), Republika e Shqipërisë, Gjend ja e Sektorit të Energjisë në Shq ipëri dhe Veprimtaria e ERE-S Gjatë Vitit 2018. Available from:
  19. J. Ebinger, “Albania’s energy sector: Vulnerable to climate change” Europe & Central Asia. Knowledge Brief. World Bank (2010) Volume 29. Available from:
  20. E. Bebi, J. Kaçani, E. Ismaili (2015) The assessment of wind potential in Mamaj, Tepelenë, Albania. IJEES Vo lume 5/2 (2015) pg 277-286) URL: e-5-2-2015
  21. A.P.W.M. Curvers, P.A. van der Werff "Identification of Variables for Site Calibration and Power Curve Assessment in Complex Terrain" October 2001, pg. 25-26
  22. Natural Resources Canada. “Clean Energy Project Analysis” RETScreen Engineering & Cases Textbook. Third Edition. (2005). ISBN: 0-662-39191-8
  23. IRENA (2021), Renewables Readiness Assessment “The Republic of Albania”, International Renewable Energy Agency, Abu Dhabi. pg.33.
  24. I. Krasniqi, F. Krasniqi, M. Limani, N. Daci, S. Gashi, F. Podvorica, A. Morina. “Raporti për prodhimin e energjisë elektrike në Kosovë” Akademia e Shkencave dhe e Arteve e Kosovës. (2020) ISBN 978-9951-26-024-4. Pg.11.
  25. B. Everett, G. Boyle, S. Peake, J. Ramage. Energy Systems and Sustainability. Power for a sustainable future. Second Edition. Chapter 5: Coal. Pg. 150.
  26. E. Bebi, L. Malka, I. Konomi, M. Alcani. “An Analysis towards a Sustainable Energy System in Albania Highly Supported by Large Scale Integration of Wind Resources: A Case Study of Mamaj Wind Farm” IJEEP (2021). Volume 11. Pg. 355-372.

Article full text

Download PDF