• Water productivity and the effect of watering on apples grown under conditions of optimal irrigation and water deficit

    pg(s) 81-85

    In order to determine the productivity and the effect of irrigation on apples grown under soil and meteorological conditions in the area of the village of Chelopechene – Sofia, research was conducted on drip irrigation of a plantation of the “Florina” variety, and different regimes were tested – from complete satisfaction of the daily needs of water to irrigate the culture with irrigation rates reduced by 20% and 40%. A non-irrigation variant has also been tested.
    The productivity of the irrigation rate at optimal irrigation varies by years from 16.3 to 28.0 kg.ha-1.mm-1, and at 40% reduction of the irrigation rate from 19.3 to 26.0 kg.ha-1. mm-1
    The highest values of productivity of the irrigation rate are reached at irrigation with a 40% reduction of the irrigation rate, in the dry 2004 high values were obtained and at the variant irrigated with 100% irrigation rate 28,0 kg.ha-1.mm-1
    The optimization of moisture in the active soil layer contributes to a significant increase and stabilization of yields, which for the test conditions are from 1266 to 2087 kg / dka. Additional yields ranged from 542 to 821 kg / dka, averaging over the study period.

  • Modelling Fe, Zn and Mn availability in soils of eastern Croatia

    pg(s) 77-80

    Iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) are essential microelements with plant available fraction in soil, depending significantly on soil pH and soil organic matter (SOM), which is important for crop growth. The aim of this paper is to present the potential of mathematical models in order to predict the availability of microelements (Fe, Zn, Mn) in acidic and alkaline soils of eastern Croatia. The fundamental database for availability prediction contains results of 22,616 soil samples from eastern Croatia representing an area of 88,714.46 ha of arable land. The mandatory results include soil pH, SOM, available P and K, hydrolytic acidity, and carbonate content. Additional data sets, including supplementary results of total (extracted by aqua regia, AR) and available (extracted by ethylenediaminetetraacetate, EDTA) micronutrient fraction, were used for modelling of micronutrient availability and for final model validation. The modelling micronutrient available fraction was created in 3 steps: (1) regression models of total (AR) and available (EDTA) micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Mn) concentration based on analytical results of soil pH, SOM, AR and EDTA micronutrients fractions; (2) prediction of the available micronutrients fraction (EDTA) based on the soil pH and SOM; (3) model validation using new data set with analytical results of soil pH, SOM, AR and EDTA. The model predicts that moderate micronutrients availability could be expected on 48.45 % (42,972.25 out of 88,714.46 ha) of arable land on average for Fe, Zn and Mn. A high availability could be on 29,32 % (25.982 ha) of arable land on average, but a very significant difference was found among Fe (47,37 %), Mn (39,01 %) and Zn (1,57 %) arable land with high availability. The most important prediction is the one that claims insufficient availability of micronutrient could be expected on 19,579.87 ha in average, what is 22.26 % of arable land. But low Fe availability was predicted on only 2.79 % (2,479,3 ha), significantly more land (22.60 %, 20,035.40 ha) with low Mn availability and the highest percentage (41,4 %) of soil with insufficient Zn availability (36,764.91 out of 88,714.46 ha). The validation shows the highest model accuracy for Zn and the lowest for Fe availability prediction

  • On the possibility of conducting fast and reliable soil tests

    pg(s) 71-76

    The current interest in soil awareness is largely due to the increased importance of growing crops in a changing climate. It is characterized by prolonged droughts, followed by short but intense rainfall, often accompanied by strong winds and low temperatures. In a number of situations and due to insufficient information about the condition of the soil and the applied technologies for its treatment, the latter is not able to absorb rainwater, surface water runoff is formed, which exports large amounts of fertile soil and nutrients. An innovative approach is proposed to perform fast and accurate soil tests using its electromagnetic conductivity. A number of physical, chemical and biological properties can be determined by this method.

  • Negative factors affecting the sanitary status of tree plants and effective approaches to their research

    pg(s) 42-45

    In the territories of forest, landscape gardening and municipal zones, both Ukraine and the whole world, there is a steady negative tendency for tree drying out. This process may lead to the complete destruction of trees in the future. The reasons for this fact are established, namely: winter damage, excess (or lack) of moisture, mechanical damage, as well as damaged by pests and diseases. As a result of the analysis the main negative factors, that affect the sanitary status of tree plants was defined. Among all the factors, climatic factors have the greatest harm to the tree plants (for example, an increase in the average annual water temperature leads to favorable breeding conditions for harmful insects). Negative factors of human influence (anthropogenic and technogenic impact) lead to pollution of air, soil and groundwater. The main disadvantages of modern methods and means of research, control and prevention of the sanitary condition of trees, and the expediency of developing new approaches for conducting an integrated comprehensive study of causes and factors, affecting the state of tree plants, are shown.

  • Evaluation of diatom taxa in Alpin fresh water, Valbona River

    pg(s) 39-41

    The aim of this study is to determine the species of different diatoms genius and to evaluate the ecology status of the river. Samples were collected along the Valbona River during 2015 period. Diatoms have proven to be powerful indicators of environmental conditions with changes in species assemblages providing information on changes in environmental conditions. Many species are identified and the dominant taxa were: Diatoma vulgaris, Diatoma ehrenbergii, Diatoma mesodon, Meridion circulare, Fragilaria arcus, Fragilaria capucina, Cocconeis placentula, Cymbella affinis, Gomphonema tergestinum, Navicula tripunctata etc. Diatom communities can be described by their species composition and diversity. Based on the type of taxa and the ecological values of species, Valbona river belong to oligo-saprobic state.

  • Sunflower irrigation in conditions of water deficit

    pg(s) 36-38

    An analysis has been made of the research work to determine the impact of water deficit on the quantity and quality of sunflower production. Studies have also taken into account the more frequent drought in the last decade – soil and atmospheric. Research shows that its good drought resilience allows it to be grown under irrigation conditions, but is sensitive to severe droughts, especially in the critical stages of development which leads to poor quality and drastic decrease in yield, and in some years to the lack of yields. The results show that sunflower irrigation has a large reserve for obtaining additional yield, which has been established through experiments in different parts of the country. The increase in irrigation is about 30-40%, and critical for water stress is the period of 20 days before and 20 days after flowering.

  • Studies to establish evapotranspiration and biophysical ratios of raspberries grown in drip irrigation

    pg(s) 30-35

    To establish the totals and average daily evapotranspiration of raspberry under the soil and climate conditions in the village of Chelopechene, near Sofia city research was conducted with drip irrigation of plantations with variety “Lyulin” adopting varying irrigation schedules – from fully meeting the daily crop water requirements to reduced depths with 20% and 40%.
    The meteorological conditions during the study period have been influenced by the totals and average daily On average, during the research period the magnitude of the total evapotranspiration for the vegetation period of the raspberry is 482 mm, with the highest values reaching 592 mm in the dry 2000.
    For the needs of the practice and the design are calculated also the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficient Z and kb, which depend on the biological characteristics of the culture and the meteorological factors.

  • Exploring New TechnologySolutions for the conditions of Eutric/ Haplic Vertisols and Gleyic-Chromic Luvisols

    pg(s) 24-30

    Determining the sustainability of agricultural production are agro-technical activities, as the main units in any technology. A study has been carried out to evaluate the impact of crop treatment systems, mineral fertilization and integrated weed control on soil and climatic conditions in the Sofia region.
    It has been found that less intensive weeding with annual and perennial weeds is observed when using a more intensive treatment system compared to the reduced treatment option. The number of weeds per unit area is increasing in the non-fertilizing variants, but their mass is lower than the fertilizers. Deeper soil tillage contributes to maintaining the values of the physical parameters (humidity, bulk density and soil hardness) in a more favorable range. Fertilization has the most significant effect on yields during the three years of the experiment.

  • Exploration of the possibility for using animal manure as alternative fuel in pig farm

    pg(s) 21-23

    The increasing demand for local products is forcing farmers to expand their production, which also increases the waste generated by the animal husbandry process. The utilization of organic waste from livestock farms is a serious task for farmers, and they need to look for alternative methods of treatment. In this paper, we consider the possibility of applying sludge from a pigs farm for fattening. Samples of dried to room humidity sludge taken from a pig manure metal lagoon were examined. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the prospect of sludge as an alternative fuel for the pig farm. A thermogravimetric (TD) and differential thermal (DTG) analysis method was used to investigate the sediment. These methods of analysis were used because of the wide range of information provided and the possibility of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The types of phase transitions in the processes of heating and cooling, the temperature interval, the time for their flow and the amount of heat absorbed or released are investigated

  • Towards to farms with zero carbon-waste-and water footprint – Part II Case study: Life cycle assessment of apples production technology at a farm level

    pg(s) 17-20

    A Carbon Footprint (CF) is defined as the total emissions of greenhouse gases caused directly and indirectly by an individual, event, organization or product,expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eqv). The objective of this case study is to provide examples of strategies for low footprint of Apple Production and Apple Processing as well as best practices and guidance on the use of equipment for planting, fertilizing and harvesting for specific crops like apple orchards. It covers the general principles and provides guidance for these specific areas.

  • Towards to farms with zero carbon-waste-and water footprint – Part I

    pg(s) 11-16

    Agriculture is responsible for large part of the land use and the agricultural productivity increases significantly during the last decades. Important past is the mechanization which leads to a dramatic rise of labour productivity. Improved production techniques, intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides and progress of plant breeding helped to increase the yields. However, excesses use of these inputs has resulted in a variety of problems, such as eutrophication and toxicity. Agricultural production is the main source of several major emissions. Examples are ammonia (NO3). More than 90% comes from agricultural sectors, methane (CH4) and nitrate (NO3-). For these reasons, the study of the agricultural production systems (APS) and their influence on the environment is a major priority. Particularly apple
    and apple juice production company was study to find the optimum solution for reduction of carbon emission.

  • Assessment of soil carbon storage in saxaul forests in the Buin Zahra desert of Iran

    pg(s) 226-227

    Deserts cover about one-fifth of the Earth’s surface and most of them have a considerable amount of specialized vegetation which is important for soil conservation..Two species of Saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon aphyllum) are the dominant plants in the vast deserts of Iran and both of them are the major plants for afforestation in the desert area. Due to the large area of land planted with Saxaul, the importance of these lands as carbon storage, become more and more. This study carried out in Boeen Zahra desert region of Iran in order to evaluate carbon storage in Saxaul Forests. Study area is located in the south of Qazvin province. Sampling was done in Saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum) stands and the native vegetation of adjacent area (Control area). In both areas, the amounts of aboveground and underground biomass of the species were calculated by cutting and weighing the aerial parts (leaves, stem), roots, and soil Sampling was carried out to a depth of 30 cm. The comparison of the carbon content of H. aphyllum in the unit of the measuring surface and control areas showed the difference of this ability between two areas. (p<0.01). The results indicated that the total soil carbon content of H. aphyllum (1453.2 kg/ha) was significantly (p<0.01) more than the control area (314.3 kg/ha).