• Drip-irrigated cherry plant irrigation practices in Central Anatolia region of Türkiye

    pg(s) 196-197

    The paper aimed to research drip irrigation systems used for irrigation of cherry plants in Konya- Akşehir and Afyon-Sultandağı provinces, Türkiye in 2022 plant growing season. The overall results showed that seasonal applied water for plants were determined as 172.8 mm. The evapotranspiration of cherry plants in region during cycles Mid April- August was calculated as 513 mm. The rainfall was 149.35 mm in such period. Therefore, 190.85 mm water was met from the current soil moisture within the plant rooting depth. The cherry fruits have been harvested before the mid-June so after that period in regions, irrigation water with small amount have been applied as supplement irrigation. In that context, it is possibly to say that cherry plants in region has used much water from the water stored within the plant rooting depth during the late Autumn and winter seasons so applied water. In accordance of low irrigation water application, cherry plants have great contributions on sustainable utilization of water resources in water scant environments such Konya closed basin of Türkiye.

  • Agro-informatics data for protecting agricultural crops from frost

    pg(s) 188-195

    The risk of frost is a serious problem for crop production, especially in the spring season when crops are most vulnerable to sudden temperature changes. Autumn frost is a limiting factor for the yield and quality of the produced products. The frequency of frosts in years varies greatly for different agricultural areas according to their geographical location and altitude, topographic features, presence of water basins, typical movements or directions of air masses and depends on the type, condition and care of the specific agricultural crops. To view the danger of frost, the concepts of “first and last” frost have been used in practice, which denote the first and last drop in temperatures to or below 0 °C within the biological vegetation period of plants in the specific calendar year. The article reviews the global practice of providing databases on the risk of frost damage to agricultural crops.

  • Comparative analysis of three varieties of apple plantings grown on cinnamon forest soil in the area of Kremikovtsi, Sofia

    pg(s) 184-187

    In 2020 – 2021, on the territory of the experimental field “Chelopechene” of ISSAPP “N. Poushkarov” an experimental trial was conducted with three varieties of apple plantations, the Florina variety, Zlatna Prevazhodna and Granny Smith, created in 2017. The soil in the research area is leached Cinnamon forest. Three variants of different varieties of apples were studied – T1 – variety Florina, T2 – variety Zlatna Prevazhodna and – T3 – variety Granny Smith under irrigation conditions with maintenance of pre-irrigation humidity 70% of the FC. In terms of precipitation, both years are very dry with a guarantee of 95.67% (2020) and 94.07% (2021). For 2020 on average, during the vegetation period of the apple plantation in the infancy period, to maintain the soil moisture in the range of 70% of FC to 100% of FC, it was necessary to apply 10 watering rates with an irrigation rate of 380 mm, and for 2021. 12 watering cans with an irrigation rate of 510 mm. During the years under review, different yields from the apple plantations were established. The highest yield was found in Florina variety, which was 431% higher compared to Granny Smith variety in third variant T3
    Main objective: Establishing the most favorable variety of apples (from three different varieties) grown on leached Cinnamon forest soil for
    the Kremikovtsi region under different water-saving technologies.

  • The irrigation regime of tomatoes grown in glass unheated greenhouses using an ecological and water-saving irrigation technique

    pg(s) 181-183

    The research was conducted to determine the irrigation regime of greenhouse tomatoes in 2022 on the MVCRI- Plovdiv experimental field in an unheated steel-glass greenhouse of the Venlo type. The experiment was carried out in three irrigation modes: optimal, reduced, and increased, respectively – 100%, 75%, and 125% using water-saving technology.
    The size of the irrigation norms has been determined, i.e., the number of waterings for the growing season and their distribution by phases of development for soil and climatic conditions of the Plovdiv region.
    The results obtained for irrigation of the greenhouse tomatoes show that 18 waterings were implemented for the growing season to maintain the soil humidity between 85-100% of the MFMC for the conditions of Plovdiv from the beginning of May to the end of July. The size of irrigation norms by modes varies from 14.9 to 24.7 mm, and irrigation from 268 to 447 mm. The maximum irrigation rates during the most significant water consumption period can be applied in 3-4 days and satisfy the needs of the plants. The obtained results are the basis for determining the design irrigation regime and predicting the culture’s irrigation time.

  • Effect of different irrigation and fertilization rates on the yield of three tomato genotypes grown in greenhouse conditions

    pg(s) 168-171

    In order to determine the influence of different rates of irrigation and fertilization on the growth, yield, and some yield-related characteristics of three genotypes of tomatoes, research was carried out at IVCM – Plovdiv in an unheated steel-glass greenhouse of the “Venlo” type. The experiment was carried out with three modes of irrigation: optimal – 100%, reduced – 75%, and increased – 125%, using water-saving irrigation technologies and three modes of fertilization – optimal – 100%, reduced – 75%, and increased fertilization – 150%. The amount of watering and irrigation norms, the number of waterings for the growing season of greenhouse tomatoes were determined based on soil type, and climatic conditions in the region of Plovdiv. An optimal or high irrigation rate combined with reduced or optimal fertilization leads to maximum yields in all three tomato varieties. A specific reaction of the variety was observed – in “Hayet” and “Pink rock ”varieties, maximum yields (14.1 t/ha and 8.8 t/ha) were obtained in the variants with 100%/75%, while in the “Malduo” variety, the highest yield was obtained (8.6 t/ha) in the variant with 125%/100%, irrigation/fertilizer rate. In the three studied varieties of tomatoes, the lowest yield was reported when the irrigation rate was reduced by 25%, which shows that the reduction of the irrigation rate by 25% is within the limits of the critical, while the reduction of the fertilizer rate by 25% is permissible.

  • The land bank, a tool to increase the effectiveness of land use in Albania

    pg(s) 166-167

    Land banking in many countries has proven to play a crucial role in adapting land use structures to new social and economic realities. From an overview of this issue in Europe, it seems that there are many organizational forms of the land bank. There are also a variety of targets, tools and instruments used. Land banking is defined as the process of mediating the lease, purchase or sale of land by a public or private institution, in order to increase its effective use as well as the mobility of land and to facilitate its use. The land bank can also be established by private initiative.

  • Soil biological indicators under sunflowers field in a long-term tillage experiment of luvisol

    pg(s) 143-146

    Tillage is the common practice in crop production, providing a suitable environment for root development. However, many studies suggest that long-term tillage practice affects the deterioration of soil properties. Soil biological indicators can be employed to evaluate the soil changing due to the long-term tillage application. The evaluation of soil biological indicators in the long-term tillage application has not been widely discussed in Hungary. We investigated two types of 19 years of long-term tillage experiments, i.e., conservation tillage, reduced tillage and leaving 30% or more crop residue after harvesting (CT), and conventional tillage, a mouldboard ploughing technique (PT). The soil was sampled thrice during the growing season at 0-5, 10-15, and 20-25 cm depths. The activity of dehydrogenase (DHA), β-glucosidase (BGA), phosphatase (PHA), labile carbon concentration (POXC), and soil water content (SWC) were measured in this investigation. Our results indicated that the tillage system significantly affected the BGA (p<0.001). Meanwhile, soil depth remarkably regulated the DHA (p<0.05). The highest activity of DHA and BGA was identified near the surface layer of CT. In contrast, the PHA was relatively distributed uniformly in all depths, reflecting that this enzyme activity was more dominated by the root effect. Tillage practice notably increases substrate availability, representing the higher POXC concentration in the CT and PT in all soil layers. POXC concurrent with SWC were remarkably associated with DHA (r=0.51, p<0.01), BGA (r=0.29, p<0.05), and PHA (r=0.28, p<0.05). On the other hand, POXC was notably correlated only with the DHA (r=0.46, p<0.01). CT practice also indicated a remarkably positive effect on stem and flower diameter growth.

  • Water resource management problems and their possible solutions in the Lower Tisza river basin Water for the landscape, but from where, how and at what cost?

    pg(s) 134-139

    One of today’s biggest challenges is to manage the extremes in water resource management associated with climate change. Central Europe and Hungary are among the regions most affected by the impacts of water management extremes. The study area is one of the most vulnerable regions of Hungary, with a high climate sensitivity. Although there is a significant network of infrastructure in place to mitigate water shortages, it is both overstretched and burdened by significant operating costs. The recent energy price explosion has focused attention on the operational issues of these systems. However, for areas beyond their reach, only locally available primary and secondary water resources offer the potential for prevention and mitigation. These have a limited reach and are costly to use. One of today’s popular slogans is ‘water to the landscape’, and the paper will discuss the possibilities and limitations of this in the sample area.

  • Assessing the Potential of Pálinka Spent Wash Compost as Soil Organic Amendment

    pg(s) 130-133

    In Hungary, the production of Pálinka, a Hungarian hard liquor, generates a significant amount of organic waste, specifically a residual liquid waste known as spent wash (SW). The environmental impact of SW pollution is a pressing concern mainly due to its high organic load, low pH, notable content of recalcitrant compounds, and high biochemical and chemical oxygen demand. Composting presents an eco-friendly management solution for SW by its stabilization into a humified material and inactivation of phytotoxic substances. Monitoring of physicochemical parameters and enzyme activity of the SW before and after the composting process was conducted, alongside germination tests to assess its seed growth suitability. The application of Bokashi composting and co-composting with various materials resulted in notable improvements in the SW parameters. The findings validate the potential of SW compost as an effective soil amendment, promoting soil health and fertility.

  • Soil erosion processes and estimation of erosion risk in southeren part of Albania

    pg(s) 127-129

    Soil erosion and associated nonpoint pollution pose critical problems affecting the economic welfare, food security, and public health of Albania. Each year nearly 60 million tons of sediment are deposited by Albanian rivers into the Adriatic Sea. Because of favorable natural factors and strong human impact over environment during centuries, area of Albania is characterized with high soil erosion rate. In last decades, faster economic growth of the country and lack of soil resources, fresh water, forests etc., reinforce the need for soil protection and soil conservation. The objective of this paper is to quantify the magnitude of soil erosion and its effects on water quality at three levels of intensity—site-specific, watershed, and nation as a whole and to identify high-risk areas for immediate soil erosion control using a
    geographic information system.

  • Characterization of lettuce germplasm (Lactuca sativa L.) stored in the Genetic Bank of Albania

    pg(s) 109-112

    Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable for Albanians. It is mostly used as a fresh salad. There are several forms (species) of lettuce that are cultivated in Albania, but Albanian farmers cultivate and market mostly the farmer’s cultivars (landraces), which are cultivars adapted to the conditions of the country and to the farming practice of the farmer. The introduction of foreign lettuce species increases the risk of genetic erosion of the farmer’s cultivars. Through various projects, cultivars of the salad farmer have been collected and their seeds are stored in the country’s Genetic Bank. This study was undertaken to recognize the morphological characteristics, as well as to evaluate the genetic variation of these genotypes with the aim of increasing the effectiveness of their using in possible genetic improvement programs, as well as other studies. In the study, 10 accessions (farmer cultivars) collected in different areas of Albania and stored in the Genetic Bank were taken.