In the years 2013-2018 at Agro-Land farm at Śmielin (53°09′04.0″N; 17°29′10.7″E; 93,8 m a.s.l.), Poland, the strip-till technology (soil strip loosening, fertilizer application and seed sowing in one pass hybrid machine Mzuri Pro-Til, Mzuri Ltd.) was compared with plough tillage and ploughless tillage, after which the seedbed was prepared, fertilizers were applied and then sowing was performed. After 5 years of using the strip-till technology, in comparison with plough and ploughless cultivation, the content of: organic carbon, available forms of macroelements, the share of water stability soil aggregates, as well as the number of: total bacteria, total fungi, earthworms increased in the top layer of the soil.
Journal section: MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Effective use of the KhTZ-160 tractor is possible, with the specified width, combining the implementation of the main technological process with an additional, i.e. sowing with cultivation. Shows the results of calculations of the transverse displacements of the working bodies as a function of their placement along the width of unit and along its length relative to the transverse geometric axis that passes through the kinematic the center of the tractor without taking into account the curvature of the trajectory of tractor and possible changes in the position of kinematic center along the unit. The largest values of the transverse displacements of the working bodies, which are placed at a distance of 2.6 m, i.e. at the machine which is attached to the rear hinged system of the tractor, reach 14.5 cm at maximum angles of rotation of the unit (3 degrees). The smallest transverse movements of the working bodies are observed when placed on a geometric axis that passes through the axis of the rear wheels (less than 1 cm). The lateral movements of working bodies of 18-row wide-coverage row-crop unit depending on the tractor turning angle and their placement in the unit are considered. Kinematic parameters and coupling scheme are recommended.
Soil and water resources as important objects and prerequisites for the design of agricultural machines and the formation of professional competencies of an agricultural engineerpg(s) 120-125
The scientific, technical and pedagogical bases of studying issues of soil and water protection by future specialists in agro-engineering in of higher education institutions are presented. Some concepts and categories that are used in the educational process for students to study agricultural land reclamation machinery and equipment are analyzed. Depending on the purpose, tasks, techniques of technological processes, the types of land reclamation measures are distinguished. The example of calculation of working bodies of earthmoving reclamation machines is given. According to the developed innovative studying technologies, students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, identify the disadvantages of technological processes, the level of technical support, and then, using mathematical apparatus, methods of engineering calculations design and construct a reclamation machine. The methodological features of calculating the power balance of the earth-moving reclamation machine, which includes the power required to: isolate the material to be processed, taking into account its deformation, are theoretically described; the movement of the material being treated, that is, providing it with kinetic energy; lifting of the processed material; overcoming the friction resistance of the treated material against the surface of the working body and guide surfaces; overcoming the full resistance of the movement of the machine, taking into account the slope of the surface of the movement to the horizon; overcoming the propulsion of the propulsion; acceleration of the machine to the calculated speed of movement (overcoming the forces of inertia); drive conveyors and accessories. The developed procedure of laboratory and practical work includes the study of the methods and features of the calculation of balance capacity components of reclamation machines, taking into account such indicators as the type of soil, its density, thickness of layer, productivity, kinematics of the working body, the required lifting height, etc. The lecturer must draw up a general report on the theoretical and practical part of the laboratory and practical work in accordance with his task and protect it from the faculty of the department. The developed pedagogical technology of cross training emphasizes that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of agricultural machines and the formation of design competencies of agricultural engineers.
Pre-harvest sprouting is the premature germination of cereal seeds so that the embryo starts growing while still on the head in the field. Grain germination before the harvest is a serious problem in many wheat-growing areas of the world. The grain and flour quality parameters impacted by pre-harvest sprouting are strongly related with climatic variables and soil water condition. This process especially occurs when wet conditions delay harvest. Spouted seed is usually inadequate for flour productions. Products made of sprouted flour are generally unacceptable to producers and consumers. Moreover, it is also often inadequate as feed because microbiological contamination. However, it seems that such kind of waste grain can be utilized for energetic purposes. The aim of the present work was to study the grinding process of sprouted wheat. The heat of combustion of sprouted grain and sound grains was also determined. Three-day germinated kernels of three wheat varieties were used for investigation. After germination the wheat kernels were dried at 40°C by using an air dryer to obtain the same moisture as that of the grain before sprouting (14.0% w.b.). The sound kernels were used as a control sample. The sprouted and the sound samples of grain were ground by using the knife mill MG-200. The results showed that the sprouting of wheat had a significant influence on the grinding process, both on the particle size distribution and grinding energy requirements. The sprouting caused a decrease in the average particle size and value of specific grinding energy in all cultivars. The values of specific grinding energy ranged average from 21.6 kJ·kg-1 to 23.6 for kJ·kg-1 fore sprouted and sound kernels, respectively. The heat of combustion of sprouted grain was only slightly lower value of this parameter obtained for sound grain and ranged from 15.9 to 16.5 MJ/kg.
The paper presents a comparative analysis of soil crushing after ploughing with ploughbodies with a classical plowing surface and those with lamellar surface.
Technological and technical solutions to the problem of soil compaction and depletion in the system of precision farming in the conditions of northern Kazakhstanpg(s) 95-99
In this work have considered the problems of soil compaction and the main nutrition of plant in the system of precision farming in the conditions of the main grain-sowing regions of Northern Kazakhstan. The specific examples show the condition of the soil, the level of their supply with nitrogen and phosphorus. Technological and technical solutions are proposed for the differentiated use of basic doses of mineral fertilizers and soil decompression
There is a method examined for studying propagation of waves in a double-periodic plate, based on the application of the boundary element method. By means of this method “transparency windows” were found for a wave that propagates in a direction perpendicular to the diagonal of the elementary period of the system
There are growing appeals for the tilting chamber (TC) technology equipped with the “PTC-S” device, which is a profound improvement of the technology of mechanized harvesting of cereals, fodder and oilseeds; and other existing technologies in the field of transportation of beveled crop into the threshing and shredding chamber, etc. That is why TC equipped with “PTC-S” refers to the new generation of working tools for transporting the crop from the harvester or pick-up to the threshing and separating device of the harvesting machine. The development has significant advantages, among which the main ones are: a significant increase in energy efficiency, reduction of quantitative and qualitative grain losses during harvesting, etc.
In the paper is described a new computerized test bench for strength testing of roll over protective structures (ROPS) in tractor cabs. The static test procedure complies with international labor safety standards accepted in the Republic of Belarus.
The use of modern methods of conservative farming requires an ever more in-depth study of the design of agricultural machinery, ensuring the high-quality execution of technological operations. The development of seeders for No-till, Mini-till and Strip-till technologies assumes theoretical and experimental studies of the working bodies of the designed seeder. At the same time it is necessary to prepare the feasibility study of its use, which in the conditions of market economy and various forms of land management is very important. This article is devoted to the substantiation of the tractive resistance of the seed drill’s seeding section.
Machine reliability research of low mechanization in the mountain conditions of Adjara with the aim of its increasingpg(s) 80-84
The article explored the operational reliability of agricultural machinery of low mechanization operating in the mountain conditions of Ajara, carried out the classification of machine parts on the basis of their structural and technological homogeneity and specific working conditions, highlighted the least reliable components and parts, developed a theoretical basis for calculating the reliability in contrast to mobile machines , the corresponding structural and logical schemes were drawn up.
As a result of statistical studies, integral and differential distribution functions of reliability indicators have been obtained, their general characteristics have been determined and the values of single and complex reliability indicators have been determined, resource-saving technology has been developed to increase the reliability and resource of mini-technology. technology for the region of Adjara, as well as its parameters and rational about service-organization of the pilot plant.
Development of innovational technologies of agricultural machines projecting and their influence on the formation of professional competencies of agricultural engineerpg(s) 66-69
The development of innovative technologies of designing agricultural machines and their influence on the formation of professional competencies of agroengineer is presented. The course designing topics and stages of work implementation are highlighted, which states that during designing a review and analysis of existing structures of this type is performed, the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials with which the machine will work (soil, seeds, fertilizers, root crops, etc.) are determined, the agrotechnical requirements and technical requirements for the car are formed, the technological scheme of the design is substantiated and the principle of its work is described, the basic technological, kinematic, hydro or pneumatic mechanical parameters, the forces acting on the working bodies, traction resistance and power consumption are determined, calculations are made for the strength of the changed structural elements, the technical passport of the machine is drawn up, the technical and economic indicators are determined, the technological scheme is drawn up, the description is made and the formula of the invention is compiled according to the requirements of the patent documents. It is noted that the successful completion of the course work on agricultural machines involves interdisciplinary connections with other disciplines, for example, such as the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials, the basis of engineering methods for calculation of strength and rigidity, machine parts and design principles, agriculture, the basis intellectual property, the basis of scientific research, etc. An example of an approximate algorithm for calculating and designing an agricultural machine on the example of a grain seed drill is given. The factors emphasizing the quality of preparation of agroengineering specialists, development of capabilities for performing design functions are highlighted.