The article considers the direction in pedagogical science, which studies the methods and technology of teaching disciplines that provide effective assimilation of generalized professional knowledge, formation of general engineering skills and abilities. The article considers the methodology of teaching general engineering disciplines – a direction in pedagogical science, which studies the principles, content, methods, means and forms of organization of educational process for the study of general engineering disciplines, providing effective assimilation of generalized professional knowledge, the formation of general engineering skills and abilities. Methodology of teaching general engineering disciplines is a direction in pedagogical science that studies the principles, content, methods, means and forms of organization of educational and teaching process for the study of general engineering disciplines, providing effective assimilation of generalized professional knowledge, formation of general engineering skills and abilities. Teaching methodology is closely related to the relevant science, as teaching should reflect the features of this science, its content and research methods. And yet it is impossible to derive the main provisions of the subject methodology from a certain field of science, reflecting the given training subject. These are qualitatively different sciences. Methodology of a particular subject is connected not only with a particular scientific branch, but also with philosophy, pedagogy, didactics, psychology, logic, physiology. The difference between teaching methodology and the corresponding science predetermines different methods of research. In methodological research, along with theoretical analysis of problems, the study of teachers’ and lecturers’ work experience, pedagogical observation and pedagogical experiment play a great role. As a result, one of the fundamental principles of teaching special disciplines in agricultural engineering training is the synthesis of fundamental general scientific and technical knowledge. In the process of teaching through certain methods and means of teacher’s and students’ activity there is a selection, interrelation and synthesis of concepts describing different levels of representation of generalized technical objects, technological processes. The second methodological principle is the holistic representation of technical objects and modern technologies of the studied industries in the training material. In this case, the training itself can be based on the wide use of so-called SMARTtechnologies, i.e. interactive learning complexes that will allow to create, edit and distribute multimedia training materials both in classroom and out-of-classroom time. The purpose of this study is to determine the implementation of the methodology of teaching general engineering disciplines to students, future engineers of agrarian production, aimed at the formation and development of different levels and types of professional competencies of students. The study of the methodology of modern technologies implementation in the educational process.
Journal section: MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Investigation of the influence of crop cultivation technologies on soil compaction in the steppe zone of Ukrainepg(s) 158-161
The article presents the results of the action of agricultural machinery on soil compaction – chernozems. The dependence of changes in soil compaction on crop cultivation technologies is shown. A comparison is made for such technologies as No-Tillage and traditional. The technique used in these technologies is analyzed. Conclusions were made and recommendations were given to reduce the negative impact of technology on the soil.
Maintaining a standardized microclimate in the poultry house is one of the main factors. It is the quality of the air parameters that ultimately determines the quality of the product output. Poultry at its maintenance requires great efforts and technological solutions. In this regard, the study is to improve the system of microclimate in the air environment of the poultry house by including exhaust fans on the rear end wall in a non-traditional way. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) using ANSYS Fluent is a powerful tool for predicting the microclimate system in the poultry house as an alternative to experimental studies. According to the results of CFD modeling of hydrodynamics and heat and mass transfer processes, it was concluded that changing the spoiler angle by 73° allows to supply air to the center of the house. At the same time the pressure drop at the inlet valves is 70.48 Pa, which allows to fully provide the exhaust fan. The air velocity at the inlet of the supply valves is 11.57 m·s–1. The average air velocity at a height of 0.7 m from floor level is 0.46 m·s–1and the temperature is 15.94 ℃. Thus, the presented scientific research can be used in the future in the development of new ventilation systems of poultry houses.
Mathematical modelling of oscillatory movements cleaner of the heads of root cultures from remains on the rootpg(s) 150-153
Harvesting root crops still poses a challenging problem for the agricultural mechanization industry. Even though the technology of separate harvesting of tops and roots has undoubted advantages, the quality of the final product, i.e. roots, depends significantly on the accuracy of cutting tops from their heads to the roots and the thoroughness of their final cleaning from residues. One of the ways to solve this problem is to create improved constructions of peelers and their further testing, experimental and theoretical studies to determine their optimal structural and kinematic parameters. To implement the above, a new mathematical model was constructed, the study of which made it possible to assess the influence of the construction parameters of the root crop head cleaner from the residues of tops on the root on the indicators of its oscillatory process in the longitudinal-vertical plane when moving along uneven soil surfaces. Numerical calculations of the obtained mathematical model were carried out on a PC using the PTC Mathcad 15 software environment and the previously determined input numerical parameters. The amplitude-frequency and phase-frequency characteristics were constructed, which made it possible to determine the optimal parameters of this oscillatory system. Based on the mathematical modelling performed, the influence of irregularities in the longitudinal profile of the soil surface on the angular oscillations of the cleaner, as well as the influence of different values of the stiffness coefficient c and the damping coefficient μ of its two copy wheels, as well as the length l, or the longitudinal coordinate of their placement on the cleaner frame, was first of all determined. The mathematical modelling of the oscillatory movements of the cleaner made it possible to establish that the value of the stiffness coefficient c of the pneumatic tires of its trailing wheels should be not less than 315 kNm–1, which is ensured by the air pressure in its tires, which should be equal to 135 kPa. In addition, it has been established that the change in the value of the coefficient μ of damping of the tires of the cleaner’s tracking wheels should be in the following range 350…1350 Nsm–1 and this parameter does not affect the amplitude and phase frequency characteristics of oscillations under the influence of oscillations of the ordinates of the longitudinal profile of field surface irregularities in the frequency range 0…24 s–1. Also, the influence of oscillations of the longitudinal profile ordinates of the field in the specified frequency range of 0…24 s–1 depends little on the change in the value of the longitudinal coordinate l of the location of its tracing wheels. Therefore, the placement of the tracing wheels on the frame should be determined based on the constructional features of the cleaner.
Research on the development of agricultural mechanics in Ukraine based on the study of the works of her patriarch, academician Petro Vasylenkopg(s) 147-149
The article presents a study of the development of agricultural mechanics in Ukraine based on the coverage of scientific works in the areas of research of its patriarch, academician of VASGNIL, academician of the Ukrainian Academy of Agrarian Sciences, corresponding member of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Professor Petro Vasylenko. The article analyzes not only his personal scientific works, but also the research of his immediate students. Academician Petro Vasylenko is known far beyond the borders of Ukraine for his fundamental research not only in agricultural mechanics, but also in the theory and methods of calculation of tillage,
sowing, grain harvesting and beet harvesting machines, as well as in the dynamics and stability of agricultural machinery. Petro Vasylenko was also awarded the highest award in the field of agricultural mechanics, the V.P. Goryachkin Gold Medal, for his outstanding scientific contribution to the development of the theory and practice of agricultural mechanics and for the creation of a scientific school. This award was given only to outstanding scientists with a worldwide reputation who enriched the treasury of scientific knowledge with fundamental works in the field of agricultural engineering aspects of agriculture.
Use of numerical methods in generalizing nusselt numbers depending on the reynolds number for a compact tube beampg(s) 123-126
When developing new types of heat exchanger constructions, such factors as their mass-size characteristics, efficiency of heat transfer through the separating heat-carrier surface, pressure losses in the paths for each of the heat-carriers and other parameters characterizing the heat-exchange apparatus play an important role. CFD modeling of heat and mass transfer processes in a tube bundle at different Re numbers with compact placement of tubes, using ANSYS Fluent software package, has been conducted. The mathematical model is based on Navier-Stokes equation, energy conservation equation for convective flows and continuity equation. The standard k-ε model of turbulence is used in the calculations. The fields of velocities, temperatures, pressures in the studied channels have been obtained. The hydrodynamic flow conditions in the channels are analyzed and the intensity of heat transfer between the hot and cold coolant through the wall separating them is estimated. Based on the results of CFD modeling, the criterial equation of Nu, number is derived, which can be used in engineering calculations of heat exchange apparatuses with compact tube bundles.
The article presents the results of a study of the conditions for further improvement and development of high-tech agricultural production in Ukraine. The purpose of this study is to define conceptual approaches to the technical and technological modernization of the agro-industrial complex as a key element of sustainable development of the real sector of Ukraine’s economy and strategic directions of research in agricultural science. The study found that in the context of inevitable climate change, the basis for the formation of highly automated agriculture will be flexible environmentally friendly technological processes in agricultural production, built on fundamentally new technical and technological principles, namely: intellectualization, digitalization, integrated automation and robotization. A concept for the development of high-tech agricultural production in Ukraine based on the principles of sustainable development and the innovative concept of Industry 4.0 was also developed, which will ensure high and sustainable economic growth of the agro-industrial complex, development of domestic agricultural engineering and related sectors of the economy. The strategic tasks for agricultural science in the development of the technical and technological base of highly automated agricultural production are outlined. The study of modern trends in the development of economies of advanced countries and their effectiveness give grounds to assert that the identified strategic directions of technical and technological modernization of the agricultural sector will be the basis for the formation of an effective model for the development of high-tech agro-industrial climate-oriented production in Ukraine.
Development of a method for carrying out a multi-factory experiment on cleaning root crops from soil and vegetable impuritiespg(s) 116-119
Cleaning of root and tuber crops, in particular potato tubers, from soil impurities and plant residues when they are excavated from the soil is an important and urgent problem in the agricultural industry. This article discusses a new construction of a vibrating spiral root and tuber cleaner and a new experimental setup that makes it possible to study the influence of the main structural and kinematic factors on the operation of a spiral type cleaner, as well as to substantiate its rational structural and kinematic parameters. The main constructional difference of the developed cleaner is that the technological process of cleaning root and tuber crops from soil and plant impurities is carried out by moving the heap with coils of cantilevered spiral springs rotating at a certain angular speed and forced oscillatory movements of the ends of the spiral springs themselves in the longitudinal-vertical plane. In this case, soil and plant impurities are effectively sifted not only through the separating gaps and coils of the spirals, but are also significantly destroyed due to oscillatory movements. At the same time, the root and tuber bodies are guaranteed to be transported by the spiral coils themselves towards the unloading conveyor. In the case of covering the spiral coils with a rubber coating, there is no damage to the bodies of root and tuberous crops. The article also presents the developed methodology for conducting a multifactorial experiment on cleaning root and tuber crops from soil impurities and plant residues.
The article presents the construction of a sectional screw robotic body, the use of which will increase the functional and operational characteristics of flexible screw conveyors when transporting bulk and lumpy materials. An experimental setup of the flexible screw conveyor has been developed to carry out experimental studies. According to the results of the experimental studies of the sectional screw conveyor graphical dependences of torque value changes T and power N on the frequency of rotation of the drive shaft of the working body at full filling of the technological line with the grain material, arising in the process of transporting goods by screw
conveyors were plotted.
This article is a logical development of a previously implemented scientific project on the topic “Development of energy-saving technology for year-round production and processing of fruit and vegetable products based on multifunctional solar dryers-greenhouses” (State Registration No. 0111RK00488, inv. No. 0212RK01775, for 2012-2015, the amount of funding is 40 million tenge) under the budget program 055 “scientific and/or scientific and technical activities, subprogram 100 “Program-targeted financing, under the program “Targeted development of university science focused on innovative results”.
Goal. Substantiation and development of a system of automated remote monitoring of the microclimate (lighting) of a farmer’s greenhouse, providing the most comfortable conditions for the growth and development of plants in the production of fruit and vegetable products using information technology to obtain a high yield of products at the lowest cost.
In winter, cultivated plants experience stress from a lack of natural light, which leads to a significant decrease in yield. In this regard, additional artificial lighting in the greenhouse allows the producer to extend the growing season and grow plants all year round or allows the producer to start sowing in early spring and continue the season until the first frost. Plants need about 10-12 hours of light to improve growth. When growing flowers or fruits, the additional need for light per day increases to 16 hours (5).
At the same time, the automation of this process will eliminate the concern that the lighting is in order and during its absence displays monitoring data on the display, or with the help of LEDs notifies about critical values of climatic parameters, or transmits data via the Internet to a tablet or phone for subsequent decision-making.
The article is aimed at meeting the demand of the population, farmers in the purchase of equipment adapted to local conditions, cheaper in cost and installation compared to analogues. The equipment attracts with its ease of manufacture and further operation.
Implementation of digital penetrometer S600 skokagro in the technology of precision and digital agriculturepg(s) 95-97
The paper presents the method of combining the results of soil compaction, which were obtained by the penetrometer of Ukrainian production S 600, into the software of digital agriculture. For example, it is shown how to enter the obtained soil compaction data into the AFS software.
Design and strength analysis of the end carriage beam for the single girder bridge crane of a 500 kg load capacitypg(s) 89-94
Overhead cranes are used in production halls, industrial buildings, transshipment yards, automobile factories, as well as in agricultural warehouses. The end carriage is an essential part of any overhead crane. Special attention is focused on the end carriage beam, which is a fundamental component of the end carriage in terms of load and strength. The introductory part of the paper aims to introduce the crane issues, particularly with respect to bridge cranes. The paper attends to the design of the end carriage beam for a single girder bridge crane with a 500 kg load carrying capacity including a strength analysis of the proposed beam. On the basis of the input load data of the end carriage beam and dimensions of area on which the main girder is placed on the end carriage beam, the minimum section modulus in bending was determined through the Allowable Stress Method as a critical parameter for the selection of the end carriage beam. The calculated value of the minimum section modulus in bending is 1416.18 mm3, based on which the U4O beam profile of S235 JR material was selected. One of the objectives is to create a 3D CAD model of the proposed end carriage beam and subsequently perform FEM analysis of the beam using Ansys engineering simulation software. The purpose of the analysis is to determine the maximum bending stress and maximum deflection of the end carriage beam. The results of the FEA analysis demonstrate that the proposed beam is satisfactory in terms of allowable stress and deflection. Moreover, the beam designed in this manner along with the numerical simulation results provides a precondition of its possible future production.