Regardless of the length of the period of use of the equipment, due to a change in technology, an increase in maintenance costs or the introduction of new requirements with a change in legislation, the machines become obsolete and are disposed of. The main methods for utilization of tractors and self-propelled agricultural machinery are considered. The equipment necessary for the disposal is also described. The methodology for determining the costs for utilization and the value of the equipment for utilization of the whole machine, element-by-element utilization and utilization after defecting has been supplemented.
Journal section: MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Theoretical and methodological features of soil water regime optimization in pedagogical technologies of agroengineers training for innovative project activitypg(s) 157-162
Innovative scientific-technical and pedagogical bases of studying in higher education institutions by future specialists in agroengineering of the theory and calculation fundamental questions of sprinkler nozzles and devices of machines for irrigation of agricultural crops are presented. Some constructive schemes of nozzles, namely, deflector, crack, etc. are analyzed. Graphs for determining the range of the jet and determining the rational shape of the nozzle are given. It is proved that all this can be effectively applied both in the educational process during the study of agricultural machinery and equipment by students and in research and production practice. Depending on the purpose, tasks, methods of technological processes of irrigation disintegration of a water jet on drops is analyzed. An algorithm for calculating the working bodies of sprinklers is presented, it can be used by agricultural engineers during their design activities. It is established that it is effective when students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, for example, during internships, identify shortcomings of technological processes, opportunities for improvement, level of technical support, and then, using theoretical knowledge, mastered methods of engineering calculations, design and construct working bodies of sprinklers. Formulas for determining the radius of the irrigation sector, the maximum angle of the rocker arm at which the nozzle is attached, the total travel time of the rocker arm in both directions, the speed of the liquid in the jet and more are given. The methodological features of functioning of various designs of nozzles of sprinklers are theoretically described. The results of scientific research presented in the article can be used as didactic material in lectures, during laboratory-practical classes, independent work of students, as well as graduate students and scientists at the stage of design and construction of reclamation machines. The main theoretical provisions are recommended to be included in the list of test tasks for assessing the readiness of agricultural engineering for innovative project activities. It is noted that the study of the basics of designing the working bodies of irrigation machines is one of the factors of a holistic conceptual system of protection of soils and water resources. Emphasis is placed on the fact that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of reclamation machines and the formation of special design competencies of agricultural engineers
Investigation of the power interaction of the ploughshare digger working body with the soil and sugar beet root for the conditions of its vibratory diggingpg(s) 154-156
the basic principles of the theory of interaction of the vibrating digging working body with the body of the root crop fixed in the soil at vibrating digging of sugar beets are developed. The force interaction of ploughshare diggers with the soil is considered in the work. The values of normal soil reactions acting on the ploughshare of the excavating working body are determined, which, when vibrating in the longitudinal-vertical plane, can dig out the bodies of sugar beet roots from the soil. Based on the obtained equations describing this process, the prerequisites for finding the kinematic and structural parameters of the excavating working body are developed.
In this paper we will analyze what type of data we need in order to perform the research. Hence, we needed to gather a satisfying set of data that we will use for testing the initial model. In order to get to the right set of data, first it was crucial to identify the most common vineyard diseases in the Republic of North Macedonia. Furthermore, we needed to gather the data set from sensors from all available measuring stations in different vineyard locations. Finally, the aim is to develop an original model for vineyard disease prediction using the most appropriate machine learning algorithms. We present the latest results we have achieved as well.
Construction of a new calculation mathematical model of the vibration process of excavation of the root body from the soil, taking into account its elastic damping propertiespg(s) 123-128
The equation of shock interaction of the vibrating digging working body with the body of the sugar beet root, fixed in the soil, which occurs in the process of vibratory digging of the roots, is made. Based on the shock interaction equation, the shock pulse and the maximum shock force that occur during this interaction were determined, which allowed to further assess the degree of damage and knocking out of root heads in the process of vibration digging of sugar beet. From the conditions of non-damage of root crops the expression for definition of admissible frequency of fluctuations of the vibrating digging working body taking into account its design parameters and translational speed of movement of the beet harvester is received. Based on the obtained equations describing this process, the optimal values of the kinematic and structural parameters of the working plow for vibration digging of sugar beets are found.
Scientific technologies and their technical support – main factors of efficiency of plant products productionpg(s) 118-122
The modern trends of development of agricultural technologies and their technical support and methodical approach to the formation of an effective technical and technological base of agrarian enterprises. It is established that the main factors influencing the efficiency and environmental friendliness of agricultural production are technologies and technical means for their implementation. In economically developed countries, technological innovations provide 70-90% growth in gross domestic product. The methodical approach to formation of effective technical and technological base of the agricultural enterprises on the basis of innovative technologies and the newest technical means with the technical and operational parameters coordinated with volumes of mechanized works and rational terms of their performance is offered. The main paradigm of the latest technologies for crop production is greening, which is based on the harmonization of the relationship between technology and soils, which will reduce the physical degradation of soils and preserve their fertility. To ensure efficient production of crop products in the agricultural enterprise should be formed technical and technological base on the basis of science-intensive technologies and the latest technical means with technical and operational parameters consistent with the scope of work and rational agro-technical terms of their implementation.
From the standpoint of energy saving, the issue of research of agro-bridge units in the composition of new agricultural lands adapted to them is important and relevant tools that operate on the principles of track and bridge farming. One of the latter is a heavy tooth harrow with flat segments. Experimental determination of the characteristics of the agronomic bridge harrowing unit in its composition, in order to establish compliance of its parameters with the basic principles of the effective implementation of track and bridge farming, was adopted as a research objective. Experimental research was carried out both according to generally accepted and developed methods, and provided for the use of modern strain gauge and control equipment with analog-digital conversion of signals from information sensors. The processing of experimental data was carried out on a PC using probability theory, regression, and correlation-spectral analysis. Physical objects of researches were wide-track agricultural bridge construction vehicle TDATU with its track width of 3.5 m and harrowing machine (BZSS-1.0 type). According to the results of experimental tests of agricultural bridge harrowing unit as part of the dental harrow proved its good adaptability to work in the units of track and bridge farming and high quality of the technological process. The latter is also a consequence of the fact that the movement of the agricultural bridge is carried out on the compacted traces of a constant tramline, whose roughness profile is low-frequency in comparison with the longitudinal profile of the harrower. The constructive version of the tooth harrow is well reflected in the nature of its unevenness in traction resistance. It is established that the fluctuations of the harrow’s traction resistance express a random function in which there are no harmonic components. The coefficient of variation of resistance fluctuations on the hook of the agricultural bridge during harrowing is no more than 10%. The latter indicates a high stability (low variability) of the process of harrowing the soil, has a positive impact on the stable movement of the agricultural bridge unit.
Perennials are an important strategic sector for agriculture in Bulgaria. In order to obtain good results from their cultivation, a scientifically based system for the maintenance of the soil surface is needed. Existing technologies have been analyzed to support the selection of an appropriate soil maintenance system. The size of the agricultural holdings in Bulgaria for the most widespread perennial plantations, which are the vineyards and are substantiated by economically expedient technologies and machines for soil cultivation suitable for the majority of the agricultural producers, is analyzed. The advantages and disadvantages of the technologies and the machines for their realization are presented.
Field laboratory tests of the seeder under development with the intellectual control unit for the technological process of sowing non-loose grass seeds, consisting of a frame, seed box with sowing devices, attachment, sowing section, running gear and sowing device drive, were carried out on the territory of the University’s research and production campus, which was divided into plots 37 * 3,6 m in size.
The following parameters were adopted for the breadboard model of the seeder: speed of movement 7 km / h; seed placement depths of 2 and 4 cm. Aisle spacing of 30 cm was taken. The maximum and minimum seeding rate for the selected crop was defined.
An analysis of laboratory tests of the seeder showed that the sowing ability of the seeder is 8-30 kg / ha, while the unevenness of the sowing was 4,60% when sowing grain and 4,80% when sowing the awnless bun. The instability of the total sowing is 2,90% when sowing wheat grass and 2,7% when sowing the awnless bun.
The field germination of “Burabay” wheatgrass seeds in experimental plots amounted to 90%, and on the plot sown with awnless bun “Akmolinsky Emerald”, the germination rate was 89%; the uniformity of the seeding depth of the seeds of the prototype seeder is 6,28% in the sowing of wheatgrass, and the sowing of the awnless bun is 5,78%; the number of seeds embedded in the layer of average actual depth and two adjacent layers on the sowing of wheatgrass was 91% and on the sowing of awnless bun is 90%, which corresponds to agro technical requirements; when testing a prototype planter of the seeder, the distribution of seeds over the feeding area was 62% for the sowing of grain and 64% for sowing of the awnless bun.
An analysis of the results of laboratory field tests of the seeder showed that, according to the quality indicators of the technological process, the developed seeder meets the agro technical requirements for grass sowing and is not inferior to foreign seeders and it is necessary to conduct its extended field tests.
The paper considers the issue of deep tillage, the use of the latest technical advances, in order to develop new tillage implements that provide better tillage and reduce erosion. The main attention is paid to the preservation of soil fertility and the use of funds in organic farming. The aim of the work is to improve the process of mechanical tillage by digging by developing a new working body and the process of interaction of digging working bodies with the soil, which change its physical properties and improve environmental safety. The most promising for deep tillage is the digger in terms of both energy and agronomic indicators (reduction of compaction, preservation and restoration of water and air balance, preservation of humus, preservation of biomass). Rotary diggers with rotational movement of working bodies are more effective in comparison with diggers having oscillating movement of working bodies. As a result of studying the dependence of the angle of the blades, providing the movement of the formation on the surface of the working body, from their position on the trajectory, it was found that the smallest value (5…70) is the angle of inclination after turning the blade deepening. When lifting the formation from the bottom of the furrow to a certain height, the required angle of the blades increases, reaching a value of 28… 300 when overturning the formation at a height of 0.20…0.25 m
This paper presents a case study of a barley field experiment that was periodically scouted using a drone spectral camera. The camera has 4 bands so barley was scouted using 4 wavelengths of light – Green, Red, Red Edge and Nir Infra Red (NIR). Based on these wavelengths it is possible to calculate different vegetation indexes known in science and practice. In this paper, 15 such indices were used. The research work concerned the observation of correlation between individual wavelengths and corresponding vegetation indexes. This paper seeks to emphasize the importance of particular wavelengths and spectral areas in crop scouting
The work of logistical support subsystems of the service enterprise is analyzed, which leads to downtime of cars in repair, which complicates the work of the production area and leads to the necessity of allocation of ever larger premises for the storage of cars waiting for spare parts. The normative planning method for forming the needs of service companies in spare parts was selected, based on the methods of recovery theory. The normative planning method for forming the needs of service companies in spare parts was selected, based on the methods of recovery theory. An exponential Weibull – Gnedenko distribution has been established to describe the demand for the average resources of spare parts and units for cars. It is suggested to manage the stocks of necessary parts by the method of dividing the spare parts into groups A, B, C. The need for spare parts can be calculated using a general characteristic (based on a sample characteristic). Modern dealership service companies have a unified system of spare parts orders, depending on volume and periodicity. The change in the number of consumed parts of the first group, which occur smoothly without sharp fluctuations, is investigated. For the second group of parts, three maximums of spare parts are allocated.