This paper presents a case study of a barley field experiment that was periodically scouted using a drone spectral camera. The camera has 4 bands so barley was scouted using 4 wavelengths of light – Green, Red, Red Edge and Nir Infra Red (NIR). Based on these wavelengths it is possible to calculate different vegetation indexes known in science and practice. In this paper, 15 such indices were used. The research work concerned the observation of correlation between individual wavelengths and corresponding vegetation indexes. This paper seeks to emphasize the importance of particular wavelengths and spectral areas in crop scouting
Journal section: MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
The work of logistical support subsystems of the service enterprise is analyzed, which leads to downtime of cars in repair, which complicates the work of the production area and leads to the necessity of allocation of ever larger premises for the storage of cars waiting for spare parts. The normative planning method for forming the needs of service companies in spare parts was selected, based on the methods of recovery theory. The normative planning method for forming the needs of service companies in spare parts was selected, based on the methods of recovery theory. An exponential Weibull – Gnedenko distribution has been established to describe the demand for the average resources of spare parts and units for cars. It is suggested to manage the stocks of necessary parts by the method of dividing the spare parts into groups A, B, C. The need for spare parts can be calculated using a general characteristic (based on a sample characteristic). Modern dealership service companies have a unified system of spare parts orders, depending on volume and periodicity. The change in the number of consumed parts of the first group, which occur smoothly without sharp fluctuations, is investigated. For the second group of parts, three maximums of spare parts are allocated.
A promising direction for further sustainable development of agriculture not only in Ukraine but also in the world is the introduction of innovative technologies, which should include the track and bridge systems of agriculture. These systems provide the basis for the automation and robotization of most crop production processes, ensure efficient implementation of “precision” and “digital” farming and provide other significant benefits. Scientists have not sufficiently studied the issue in this regard, and there is currently no effective methodology for implementing the potential technical-operational and technological properties of specialized broad gauge means of agricultural production mechanization for the rutting system of agriculture. Therefore, from the point of view of solving the food problem in the world, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as developing resource-saving technologies based on the principles of the rutting system of agriculture, in accordance with the trends of scientific and technological progress in the field of mechanization – improving the level of functioning of technical means through integrated mechanization, electrification, automation and robotization – this direction of research is relevant. The aim of the research is to substantiate the main advantages and effectiveness of the use of a specialized vehicle for rutting agriculture by justifying its main parameters. As a result of these studies, it was found that the energy saturation level of specialized agricultural vehicles moving in the tracks of a permanent technological track should be 23.5 kW·t−1, in realizing the traction force at the level of 6.37 kN by 1t of their weight. Losses of the field area for the engineering zone when using agricultural equipment with a wheelbase width exceeding 6 m are 5-6%. The economic effect of the use of broad-wheeled agents in wheat cultivation technology is at least 150 € per hectare.
Experimental study results of the grinding process in a hammer-type shredder with side separating sievespg(s) 55-58
The technical implementation of air-product flow control in the working chamber of a hammer mill for timely separation of conditioned particles from the main stream and their lateralization (removal to the side zones) for the purpose of evacuation from the working chamber is considered. The energy and quality indicators of the grinding process in a hammer mill with side separating sieves are determined. The obtained experimental dependences are necessary for the manufacture of hammer crushers for farms and the development of recommendations for the operation of hammer crushers with side separating sieves. Improving the conditions of the grain material separation process and timely unloading of the finished product from the grinding chamber makes it possible to achieve economic efficiency by reducing the content of the dust fraction in the finished product and reducing the specific energy costs of the grinding process.
Environmental problems today are one of the most important and global indicators of human development. One of the consequences of the impact of agricultural machinery on natural resources is their pollution due to loss of fuel and lubricants and engine waste. The purpose of the research is to develop scientific and methodological bases for the selection of criteria for assessing the environmental safety of the diesel engine of an energy vehicle with the creation of an environmental safety management system. The scientific and methodological basis for assessing these factors is a systematic approach to solving environmental problems that arise during the operation of machine-tractor units and other agricultural energy resources. Estimation of the level of emissions of the main pollutants and toxic substances in exhaust gases can be defined by means of the regulatory characteristic of the engine depending on an operating mode of this engine. The optimal mode of operation of the engine YaMZ-236M2, from an environmental point of view, adopted 1450…1850 rpm. In this case, fuel consumption does not increase in this mode. It is possible to reduce the emissions of the most significant NOx exhaust element by limiting the engine speed to 90% of the nominal. CO and CH emissions at a given engine speed have not reached their maximum value.
The analysis of power expenditure of a wide-cut seeder for the performance of the technological operationpg(s) 48-49
During the operation of the tractor unit in field operations, not all the power developed by the tractor engine is effectively spent on useful work.
To use the tractor power effectively, reduce or eliminate its useless losses, the article considers the tractor power balance, showing the distribution of effective power among the individual components for traction and driving their working details. According to theoretical studies, it was found that the traction resistance of a wide-seeder with clutch openers consists of two components; this is the resistance of the hopper to movement and the resistance of the filling part
It was found that traction resistance will decrease as the hopper empties. The pulling resistance of the embedment is made up of several components, with the maximum permissible working speed of the unit, the maximum embedment depth and the highest seed sowing rate, the required power to perform the sowing process is obtained within 120 kW (163, 155 h.p), excluding the tractor power for raising or lowering the side sections of the sealing part. The total power consumption is distributed as follows: 90,8% to overcome the traction resistance of the wide seed drill, 9,1% for the fan hydraulic drive, and the remaining 0,1% for the electric meter.
To reduce the amount of required power for the sowing process, it is necessary to work in the direction of reducing the seeder mass and improving the design parameters of working coulters.
The article proposes a fundamentally new design of a resource-saving, anti-erosion unit that significantly improves the quality of soil tillage in cultivating agricultural crops, improves the productivity of the plow, significantly eliminates soil erosion and reduces the fuel consumption of the tractor by reducing the traction resistance.
The construction of the unit and the principle of its operation are described in detail. It can be successfully used both in plain and in mountainous terrain.
Characteristic similarity criteria and a criterion equation for studying the traction force of the proposed unit are obtained and their physical meaning is revealed
The article considers the use of the bridge assemblies (BA) for low-stalk crop tending and growing, which comprises all the necessary agricultural machinery (soil cultivation, sowing-planting, weeding, overhead irrigation, etc.)
The bridge assembly (BA) is the open ground-mounted power-generating equipment plant operating on stationary ground-based electricity, in which the double-stream power consumption take place, one while moving the BA itself in the V1 direction, and the other one while moving the process module (PM) in the V2 direction. The mechanical characteristic of one of the engines has been constructed. The features of the operating modes in the processes of unloading and braking (resistance growth) are discussed and the permissible torque moments required for reliable operation are determined.
Application fields of porous titanium gas flow dispersers at enterprises of the agroindustrial complexpg(s) 3-6
The effective fields of application of products made of porous filter materials based on titanium powders as gas flow dispersers at enterprises of the agro-industrial complex are given. The results of their use in the dispersion of ozone-containing air mixtures, air and vapor for the purpose of disinfecting the fish habitat in equipment of a closed water supply, saturating the culture fluid with oxygen in the growth of microorganisms in bioreactors and heating the heat carrier to ensure sterilization of liquid media in dairy plants, respectively, are described.
In the years 2013-2018 at Agro-Land farm at Śmielin (53°09′04.0″N; 17°29′10.7″E; 93,8 m a.s.l.), Poland, the strip-till technology (soil strip loosening, fertilizer application and seed sowing in one pass hybrid machine Mzuri Pro-Til, Mzuri Ltd.) was compared with plough tillage and ploughless tillage, after which the seedbed was prepared, fertilizers were applied and then sowing was performed. After 5 years of using the strip-till technology, in comparison with plough and ploughless cultivation, the content of: organic carbon, available forms of macroelements, the share of water stability soil aggregates, as well as the number of: total bacteria, total fungi, earthworms increased in the top layer of the soil.
Effective use of the KhTZ-160 tractor is possible, with the specified width, combining the implementation of the main technological process with an additional, i.e. sowing with cultivation. Shows the results of calculations of the transverse displacements of the working bodies as a function of their placement along the width of unit and along its length relative to the transverse geometric axis that passes through the kinematic the center of the tractor without taking into account the curvature of the trajectory of tractor and possible changes in the position of kinematic center along the unit. The largest values of the transverse displacements of the working bodies, which are placed at a distance of 2.6 m, i.e. at the machine which is attached to the rear hinged system of the tractor, reach 14.5 cm at maximum angles of rotation of the unit (3 degrees). The smallest transverse movements of the working bodies are observed when placed on a geometric axis that passes through the axis of the rear wheels (less than 1 cm). The lateral movements of working bodies of 18-row wide-coverage row-crop unit depending on the tractor turning angle and their placement in the unit are considered. Kinematic parameters and coupling scheme are recommended.
Soil and water resources as important objects and prerequisites for the design of agricultural machines and the formation of professional competencies of an agricultural engineerpg(s) 120-125
The scientific, technical and pedagogical bases of studying issues of soil and water protection by future specialists in agro-engineering in of higher education institutions are presented. Some concepts and categories that are used in the educational process for students to study agricultural land reclamation machinery and equipment are analyzed. Depending on the purpose, tasks, techniques of technological processes, the types of land reclamation measures are distinguished. The example of calculation of working bodies of earthmoving reclamation machines is given. According to the developed innovative studying technologies, students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, identify the disadvantages of technological processes, the level of technical support, and then, using mathematical apparatus, methods of engineering calculations design and construct a reclamation machine. The methodological features of calculating the power balance of the earth-moving reclamation machine, which includes the power required to: isolate the material to be processed, taking into account its deformation, are theoretically described; the movement of the material being treated, that is, providing it with kinetic energy; lifting of the processed material; overcoming the friction resistance of the treated material against the surface of the working body and guide surfaces; overcoming the full resistance of the movement of the machine, taking into account the slope of the surface of the movement to the horizon; overcoming the propulsion of the propulsion; acceleration of the machine to the calculated speed of movement (overcoming the forces of inertia); drive conveyors and accessories. The developed procedure of laboratory and practical work includes the study of the methods and features of the calculation of balance capacity components of reclamation machines, taking into account such indicators as the type of soil, its density, thickness of layer, productivity, kinematics of the working body, the required lifting height, etc. The lecturer must draw up a general report on the theoretical and practical part of the laboratory and practical work in accordance with his task and protect it from the faculty of the department. The developed pedagogical technology of cross training emphasizes that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of agricultural machines and the formation of design competencies of agricultural engineers.