• An approach to information exchange management in multimodule multi-position security systems

    pg(s) 28-31

    The material presents a standard scheme of a multimodule multi-position security system and offers an approach for managing the information exchange in it, taking into account the specific location and condition of the individual modules and the functional relationships between them.

  • Ecology of equilibrium and stationary states of the unique Humanity-Biosphere system

    pg(s) 22-27

    The biosphere as a physical space in which there is life, including human life, is quantitatively characterized by population quantities. The population can be described by certain physical laws in thermodynamic approximation with the application of the notion of entropy. Entropy is a term not only purely physical but also universal. It is a criterion for the description of the evolution and development of the unique Biosphere-Human system. The development of human societies as a part component of the Biosphere is subject to the transformations that are the result of technical developments and the technical-scientific revolution in general. These anthropogenic activities lead to the negative effects upon the Biosphere with the accumulations of pollutants both in the atmosphere and in the system as a whole. The entropy of the Biosphere component as a result of the accumulation of pollutants changes over time. Human physical , ecological and social health is at risk, with the further development of pathological states and human health problems. The entropy of the human component is increasing and the entropy of the Biosphere is decreasing, respectively. The decrease in Biosphere entropy is dictated by the disappear of many species of plants and animals as a consequence of the ecological problem. It is necessary to mention that the steady state and the equilibrium state have different meanings. The steady state is described by a very complex stage under the action of multiple factors with a tendency to stabilize parameters that do not vary over time and the system components “adapt” to these stabilized numerical values such as ambient temperature, pressure and constant amounts of species of animals and plants. The equilibrium state is an idea lized case of the system which from a purely thermodynamic point of view is described by maximum entropy. This paper shows that the human entropy increases at the expense of the decreasing of biosphere entropy, a fact of the universal principle of the conservation of energy. The increase in human entropy results to the instability and risk with self-destructive tendencies unless the steady state is not assured. The mechanisms for the obtaining of the steady state are complex and can be based on some rules and principles at a global level with tendencies to use nontraditional energy sources and of the waste recycling with effects of reducing of the accumulation of pollutants in the atmosphere.

  • Engineering solutions to ensure protection of nuclear power plants against sabotage.

    pg(s) 18-21

    The protection of nuclear installations against malicious acts can take a number of different forms. This report addresses only issues related to the sabotage of nuclear facilities – prevention or mitigation of sequences initiated by malicious acts that may have potential radiological consequences. Nuclear power plants have good physical protection systems (PPSs) and procedures, and they are designed to minimize the likelihood of an accident and in the event of an accident, not to release radioactive material in an uncontrolled manner. The objective of this report is to provide methods for evaluating and for proposing corrective actions aimed at reducing the risk related to any malicious act that, directed against a nuclear power plant, could endanger the health and safety of plant personnel, the public and the environment.

  • System for counteracting large groups of low-flying targets

    pg(s) 14-17

    The material offers a description of a type of system for counteracting large groups of low-flying targets, established at the Institute of Metal Science, equipment, and technologies with Center for Hydro- and Aerodynamics “Acad. A. Balevski” at the Bulgarian Academy of Sciences-BAS. Data on its structure, the main tactical and technical characteristics and functions of its main modules and some test results are presented.

  • Some Elements of Multi-Domain Operations Regarding Air Power

    pg(s) 11-13

    In the paper the Author examines some highlighted elements that related to Air Power, however these usually are not merely Air Power specific attributes. Also, they cannot be, because one of the utmost priority of Multi-Domain approach is to unify, almost melt the services or components together. The highlighted topics of the paper are an envisioned command and control system, the Air Force roles in MDO and targeting considerations.

  • New Zealand and small pacific states towards US-China global contest

    pg(s) 126-130

    In the presented research, the theoretical basis is constructivism and critical geopolitics. In the face of the intensifying US-Chinese rivalry, the main theater of which is the Pacific, the question arises about New Zealand’s position of other small and micro states in the Pacific towards this rivalry. While trying to understand what policies are pursued by the states of this Pacific region in the face of the American-Chinese rivalry, a deep dichotomy and ambivalence of attitudes among small states were noticed. At the same time, it was indicated that it is cultural factors and language, mental and consciousness processes that have a profound impact on shaping the policy of states within the framework set by geopolitics.

  • The motivation for escaping from prisons

    pg(s) 122-125

    The leading motives for perpetrators’ escapes are self-affirmation, self-preservation, identification, increase of self-esteem, achievement of retribution and justice. The precise psychological analysis of the motives for the escapes favours their forecasting, timely crossing and termination. The sustainable motives for the realization of escapes are connected with serious conspiratorial activity. Situational motives for escape are inherent in impulsive and primary personalities.

  • Automated Vehicle Divert system for border police in Hungary

    pg(s) 119-121

    National Laboratory for Security Technologies is a national research centre for integrated research and innovation programmes in the three pillars of technology-based security (institutional security, smart-city security and border security) for the period 2020-2024 in Hungary. Basic research concluded in the framework of the “Secure Country – Secure Border” sub-project has identified the need of new methods and equipment for police during the period of temporary reintroduction of border control at the Schengen internal borders. Persons and their vehicles belong to the risk category on the road sections leading to internal borders can be tracked, selected and diverted with the use of an Automated Vehicle Divert (AVD) system. In the longer term, the system will be linked to the concept of the “safe country” by the further development of an integrated software system for analysing data from CCTV camera systems operating at toll, speedand border crossing points throughout Hungary, based on the vehicle registration number and characteristics while driving, and its integration with the AVD system.

  • The Influence of Distance Learning on Vocational Subject of the First year Students at the University of Defence – Results of the Comparative study

    pg(s) 115-118

    The University of Defence students are ground “stones” for safety studies in future. Their education process is the basic step for ensuring security for the Czech Republic in the next decades. The article deals with the very current topic – the success rate of distance education of first-year students of the University of Defence in Brno in vocational-oriented subjects in a long-term context. The article formulates the results of the study. The study is to focus on the first year of study that the students of both University faculties completed according to the currently valid study program.
    By comparing the results achieved by students in all first years of study (the group consisted of more than 500 respondents), we have gained a relatively straightforward and objective answer to the question concerning the effectiveness of distance learning from a long-term perspective. The first semester of the university studies was realised in distance learning compared to the standard system d ominated by fulltime teaching joined with practices and seminars. The second semester was realized, as usual, students were returned to the s tandard study program.

  • The reasons for the next armed clash between Jews and Palestinians from April-May 2021 and the impossibility of a lasting solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict

    pg(s) 92-93

    A study of the preconditions for the emergence of the latest conflict between Jews and Palestinians in the context of the internal political situation in the state of Israel and who has an interest in its ignition. The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the longest-running conflict that has ever existed in humanity and the impossibility of a lasting and sustainable settlement of the dispute, which will contribute to the stability not only of the State of Israel but also of the Middle East.

  • Preventive and protective measures against insider threats in nuclear facilities

    pg(s) 88-91

    One of the main threats to nuclear facilities can involve external or insider adversaries or both together in collusion (coop eration for an illegal or malicious purpose with another insider adversary or with an external adversary). In these case, the main effort is to prevent and protect against unauthorized removal of nuclear material and sabotage of nuclear material and facilities by insiders. This report applies to any type of nuclear facility – notably nuclear power plants, research reactors and other nuclear fuel cycle facilities – whether in design, construction, commissioning, operation, shutdown or decommissioning

  • “Fort Trump” in Poland – was it possible?

    pg(s) 85-87

    The key role of the United States in Polish security policy makes the Polish authorities strive for possibly close allied relations with the US. In order to consolidate the allied bond and increase the defense and deterrence capabilities against Russia, Poland proposed building a permanent base for the US Armed Forces on its territory in the strength of a division. This project was too ambitious and for this reason it was impossible to implement in the current political and military conditions. The main reason was the concern about escalating tensions on the NATO-Russia line. There was also no inter-alliance agreement around the project, and some NATO countries openly opposed the “Fort Trump” concept. Experts were not convinced that the permanent stationing of a large group of American forces in Poland would be the most effective solution to the current threats. For these reasons, “Fort Trump” was not created, and the decisions made to increase the American military presence in Poland were much less ambitious than the proposals and expectations of the Polish authorities.