European environmental policy faces major challenges arising from the interaction between public production and nature.The challenge for us, today’s people, is to create material goods without disturbing eco-equilibrium. The main reasons for the emergence of environmental policy is conditioned by objective factors, the most important of which are: climate change, resource depletion in the face of rising global energy needs, price level dynamics, problems and environmental damage from the development of the classical technologies. One of the possible solutions to this problem is the application of new sources of energy, such as renewable energy sources.
Journal section: NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY
An overview of the emergence and development of nuclear weapons has been made since its creation to the present day. Described are the attempts and consequences of using this weapon. What are the accumulated capacities in the world and what is their prospect for mankind? Described are the parameters of the current nuclear abatement agreements.
Security is often commonly used and most meaningful concepts in contemporary political vocabulary. Furthermore, it has been engrossing in a fascinating subject in aspects of the survival of nations and states in the world. There is no doubt about the fact that energy security is factor influencing the security area. This paper analyses the impact of energy dependency in the World and in our country.
By asking the question of the creation of a single European army, we must say that the political will to integrate EU security and defense action is a primary factor. If Member States really want to guarantee the security of their citizens, to protect their humanitarian values in a global context, they have to have a huge political desire and not just “written documents”.
The police, as a public service, while performing its legal activities has at its disposal preventive and repressive forms of action. It is a rule that the preventive forms of action always have the priority, and only in specific circumstances the police is obliged to use repressive measures, such as: physical force, means of restrain, rubber baton, firearms, police dogs, etc. In this paper, only the use of physical force from tactical and security points of view is analyzed. This paper includes detailed analysis and elaboration of a model that refers to the most important phases of the police work. The structure of the model includes several tactical and security activities that determine the manner of tactical police actions during the whole procedure of performing police duties. The initial phase of the procedure includes: identification and evaluation of the seriousness of the threat, establishing verbal communication and maintaining optimally safe distance. The further phases, depending on the situation and according to the rules of self-defense, include using certain amount of physical force in order to reject the threat or to bring under control the resistance.
Maritime piracy and armed robbery against ships are one of the contemporary challenges to the shipping and have global impact on maritime trade and security. Following the boom of Somali piracy in 2009-2011, there has been a downward trend since 2012, resulting mostly from the international counter-piracy efforts, with reaching its lowest value for the last 20 years in 2017. However statistics show doubling the number of attacks in some other regions in the last several years accompanied by increased levels of violence. This report presents a survey of maritime piracy and armed robberies over the last ten years (2008-2017) by regions and countries, as well as by type of attacks on ships, personnel and cargo, with the purpose to outline the trends in contemporary marine crime.
GEOENERGETIC ASPECTS OF THE TERRITORIAL DISPUTE BETWEEN THE REPUBLIC OF SLOVENIA AND THE REPUBLIC OF CROATIApg(s) 149-153
The report analyzes the territorial dispute between the Republic of Slovenia and the Republic of Croatia in the context of the development of the main energy projects in Eastern Europe. An emphasis is placed on the Final Award of the Permanent Court of Arbitration regarding the maritime border between the two countries in the Piran Bay and especially on the decision for establishment of a "Junction Area", allowing physical connection between the territorial sea of Slovenia with international waters, through the territorial sea of Croatia and the influence of this decision on the opportunities for implementation of energy projects in the region. Additionally, the importance of the North-South Gas Corridor is presented as well as how it relates to the Baltic Pipe project and the Southern Gas Corridor. The report highlights the competition between some of the energy projects in the region. As a result, it is revealed that behind the territorial dispute between Slovenia and Croatia, falsely perceived as an insignificant, lay the confronting interests of USA, Germany and the Russian Federation, further transferred to the regional level, including through the interests of powerful energy corporations as ExxonMobil, Gazprom and OMV, turning the local dispute into a geopolitical vortex.
FEATURES IN THE TRAINING OF MILITARY UNITS OF SPECIAL OPERATIONS FORCES IN THE FIGHT AGAINST TERRORISMpg(s) 142-146
Much has been said and wrote during the past year on how best the international community must oppose the expansion of geography of international terrorism.The growth of terrorism to such an unprecedented scale requires the intergration of the forces of the whole civilized world to fight it. For the successful implementation of this struggle is necessary to use all possible means: political, economic, legal and military. This imposes the implementation of a specialized training program of Bulgarian Special Operations Forces.
This paper discusses tactical readiness as a complex of knowledge, skills and habits for the application of tactical means and methods of action in extreme conditions, individually and in small groups and formations on the enemy’s territory, or in situations when being surrounded or have fallen into captivity, escape from captivity and from the opponent’s territory under a complex impact on their part.
Increasing data heterogeneity, fragmentation and volume, coupled with complex connections among specialists in disaster response, mitigation, and recovery situations demand new approaches for information technology to support crisis management. Advances in GIServices show promise to support time-sensitive collaboration, analytical reasoning, problem solving and decision making for crisis management. Furthermore, as all crises have geospatial components, crisis management tools need to include geospatial data representation and support for geographic contextualization of location-specific decision-making throughout the crisis. This paper provides introduction and description of Mobile GIServices applied to crisis management activity. The goal of Mobile GIServices in this context is to support situational awareness, problem solving, and decision making using highly interactive, visual environments that integrate multiple data sources that include georeferencing.
Wasteless technology for processing of plastic waste and food packaging polymer, which is based on the usage of mechanical recycling as the most environmentally friendly way of plastic waste recycling has been developed. The introduction of various kinds of plastic waste, including plastic packaging waste, into sand cement compositions, allows, on the one hand, to dispose millions of tons of plastic waste and at the same time to reduce the negative impact of the last ones on the environment and humans. On the other hand, it allows substituting expensive fibreboard fibres by substantially cheaper polymeric waste, preserving and improving the properties of concrete mixtures, to which they were administered. The resulting product can be used as filler in a cement-sand mixture, which can significantly improve the physicomechanical, thermal and rheological properties of the product made on the cement-sand based mixtures.
This paper examines the particular nature of the tactical and fire training of the special units of the Bulgarian Army and the Ministry of Interior and the ways of improvement.
The complex use of tactical and shooting habits is a foundational element in practice when performing special tasks. The skillful use of the right solutions in extreme situations implies the use of all types of firearms at different distances in the course of psycho-physical loads under the influence of distracting factors, combined with the use of techniques of hand-to-hand combat and special means. Along with this, the personnel of these units should be able to move tactically, taking into account the peculiarities of the surrounding environment and to use the firearms effectively.