• Comparison of the Kazakhstan and the Uzbekistan counter-terrorism and counterradicalization strategies

    pg(s) 49-52

    This article compares the measures of two states, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, competing for the position of regional leader. Elimination of radicalization from the lowest levels of the state is a natural concern of authoritarian governments. Mindful of the threat that religious extremism poses to the stability of authoritarian regimes, they condemn terrorism in all its forms and support the international community’s efforts to fight (Islamist) terrorism together. To ensure stability and national security, the governments of both countries have adopted comprehensive national strategies and action plans to counter radicalization and terrorism. Their common feature is the focus on preventive measures in local communities. However, while Kazakhstan concentrates on addressing the root causes of extremism, a strong emphasis on repressive measures can be identified within the Uzbek strategies. The article examines the limits of cooperation between the leading Central Asian countries as declared in the current legislative acts, highlights how the positions of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan differ and diverge, and the potential to mitigate the risks associated with extremism in Central Asia by strengthening regional cooperation and understanding.

  • EU-third countries cooperation in managing irregular migration

    pg(s) 46-48

    The Arab Spring and the armed conflicts that followed in the MENA region led to unprecedented mixed migrant flows towards the EU. As a result, various measures to cope with irregular migration have been proposed and implemented both at the national and regional levels. This paper tries to analyse those of them that regard the relations between the EU and third countries bordering it. Special attention is paid to the agreements that involve the provision of financial assistance to third countries in return for stemming the flows of migrants. We argue that such a practice is not only controversial per se, but it does not lead to significant success in tackling irregular migration, as it has been already observed on several occasions. We therefore make some recommendations aimed at better addressing the issue of mixed
    migration management at the EU level.

  • The OSCE’s commitment to counter-terrorism: implications for Bulgaria

    pg(s) 44-45

    The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is dedicated to fostering peace, security, and stability in its member states. Counter-terrorism remains one of its top priorities, with a focus on a comprehensive and collaborative approach. This paper explores the OSCE’s counter-terrorism strategies and their implications for Bulgaria, a participating state. It delves into the collaborative efforts, initiatives, and programs that Bulgaria engages in within the OSCE framework to combat terrorism.

  • Shortage of water resources and cyber – attack are two greatest challenges to contemporary global stability and security

    pg(s) 40-43

    In response to these global threats, it is essential that nations work together to develop coordinated approaches to ensure global security. This requires building trust, sharing information, and collaborating to develop effective solutions that address the root causes of these threats. One important step in ensuring global security is to focus on the prevention of crises before they occur. This can be achieved by investing in early warning systems, improving communication and cooperation between nations, and addressing the underlying causes of conflict and instability. Another key factor in ensuring global security is to promote sustainable development that prioritizes environmental protection, social justice, and economic progress. This can help to prevent resource scarcity and social inequality, which are often key drivers of conflict and insecurity. In addition, it is important to recognize the central role of technology in shaping global security. While technology can create new threats, it can also be harnessed to develop innovative solutions that promote global security. This includes investing in cybersecurity, developing new technologies to address environmental challenges, and promoting access to education and information to help people around the world build resilience and respond effectively to emerging threats. Global security is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires a coordinated and collaborative approach from nations around the world. By working together to prevent crises, promote sustainable development, and harness the power of technology, we can build a more secure and resilient world for generations to come.

  • Smart solutions for street lighting – safety at public places

    pg(s) 36-39

    The importance of artificial lighting in our daily lives is growing, and street lighting has become a major focus over time. The creation of street lighting was motivated by the need to increase visual and property security and public safety. Current developments in metropolitan environments foreshadow the ‘smart cities’ of the future. The basic concept is that CCTV cameras, traffic lights and street lighting all have ‘smart functions’. Municipalities will be able to adapt to the needs of their inhabitants, thus increasing safety, comfort and energy efficiency. Given the adaptability of smart street lighting to the built environment, artificial intelligence is an essential element of smart cities, even in the systems already in place. Extensive sensor networks will facilitate the collection of environmental data by AI. In addition, unauthorised access to information available through IoT systems poses a serious threat. A critical point is the monitoring and protection of surveillance systems that are vital to the operation of smart systems.

  • Enhancing international cooperation: bulgaria’s role in the united nations counterterrorism initiatives

    pg(s) 33-35

    The United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism (UNOCT) spearheads a unified approach across the UN to prevent and counter terrorism and violent extremism globally. Despite the emergence of new challenges, including the misuse of new technologies by terrorist groups, the UNOCT has amplified its efforts, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus remains on promoting multilateral cooperation, with the UN Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT) playing a pivotal role in fostering international cooperation against terrorism. This paper delves into Bulgaria’s contributions and role in these initiatives, emphasizing its alignment with the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.

  • Selection, education and training of personnel for nuclear power plants

    pg(s) 29-32

    This report identifies the main objectives and responsibilities of the operating organization for the selection, qualification and training of personnel for new and existing nuclear power plants to establish and maintain a high level of competence of personnel and to ensure safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The publication can also be used as a recommendation for the recruitment, training and qualification of personnel for nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants.

  • Maritime piracy and armed robbery evolution in 2008-2022

    pg(s) 18-21

    Maritime crime (piracy and armed robberies against vessels) are challenges to the shipping that have global impact on maritime trade and security. The evolution of this phenomenon is a dynamic process which is characterized by rapid changes both in terms of the number and severity of incidents and in their geographical concentration. This study traces the development of maritime crime over the past 15 years, divided into three 5-year periods. It is performed by analyzing the data collected and published by the International Maritime Bureau, concerning the number, character and location of incidents for the 2008-2022, in order to outline the trends in the contemporary sea piracy and armed robbery.

  • Safety and security measures during transportation of dangerous goods class 7 (radioactive materials), taking into account the requirements of ADN

    pg(s) 15-17

    One of the main continuous processes occurring in the operation of a nuclear power plant (NPP) is the normal provision of the Nuclear Fuel Cycle (NFC). The NFC includes all activities performed with Nuclear Fuel (NF) from the time of uranium mining and includes enrichment, fabrication of fuel assemblies, transportation, operation in a reactor plant as well as processing, disposal, storage or disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF). The storage and reprocessing or disposal of SNF is the subject of a national strategy for the use of nuclear fuel. In most versions of the nuclear fuel strategies, transport of certain quantities of SNF from the reactor to the designated storage, processing or disposal site is envisaged. This transport may range from a few hundred meters to thousands of kilometers. In practice, land and water transport are mainly used. In both cases, the transport must be carried out in strict compliance with all safety and security requirements

  • Safety and security measures during transportation of dangerous goods class 7 (radioactive materials), taking into account the requirements of ADR

    pg(s) 12-14

    Providing a VVER-1000 type NPP with the required amount of Fresh Nuclear Fuel (FNF) for any Nuclear Reactor System (NRS) energy campaign is of primary importance and is an element of the security of supply and the reliable operation of a NPP. According to the definitions in the European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road (ADR), FNF is dangerous cargo because it contains substances that are permitted for road transportation only under certain conditions. The transportation of FNF on Bulgaria’s roads is carried out in strict compliance with the requirements of ADR.

  • Cyber warfare, a new aspect of modern warfare

    pg(s) 72-74

    Cyber warfare nowadays is a new and very important concept of the modern world. After land, sea, air and space, the war has entered the fifth dimension: cyberspace. Some computer glitches or attacks paralyze military e-mail systems, refineries and pipelines explode, air traffic control systems collapse, trains derail, financial data gets misdirected, power grids damaged, satellites go out of control. Worst of all, the identity of the aggressor remains a mystery. The effects of a cyber war are similar to those of a nuclear attack. This requires protective measures and security for the information that circulates in these communication systems and networks and constitutes one of the challenges of today’s time. Threats to communication and information systems have made cyber defense in the field of homeland security an element that must be taken into consideration.

  • Possible approaches to ensure security of information for nuclear facilities

    pg(s) 68-71

    Sensitive information is information, in whatever form, including software, the unauthorized disclosure, modification, alteration, destruction, or denial of use of which could compromise nuclear security. Confidentiality is the property that information is not made available or disclosed to unauthorized individuals, entities or processes. Information security not only includes ensuring the confidentiality of information, but also includes ensuring the accuracy and completeness of the information (its integrity) and the accessibility or usability of the information on demand (its availability).