Injection moulding is a widespread method of polymer processing. The annual, global energy consumption for injection moulding is comparable to the annual energy production of different European countries. The most energy-consuming stage of the injection moulding is the plasticization process, which needs the energy mainly for the rotational and reciprocating screw motion as well as the heating of the barrel. Both issues were examined by changing various parameters of the injection moulding process, measuring the process characteristics and calculating the corresponding values of SEC (specific energy consumption). Various thermoplastic polymers were examined. It was found that the optimal conditions from the energy consumption point of view is low value of rotational velocity of the screw. Changes of back pressure do not affect the energy consumption of the plasticizing system of the injection moulding machine. Furthermore, an increase of the SEC value with increasing barrel temperature was shown. It was ca. 15% for the average barrel temperature rise of 20°C.
Journal section: INNOVATIVE SOLUTIONS
The research peculierities of parameters and choice of agricultural machines in pedagogical technologies for innovative project activity in training agroengineerspg(s) 151-154
The structural-logical model of training of future specialists in agroengineering for innovative project activity has been developed on the basis of a systematic comprehensive study of the theoretical course of agricultural machines, the deepening of the students’ scientific work on the development of supporting and moving elements of machine-tractor units, including pneumatic tires. The samples of individual fragments from the algorithm and the method of calculation of wheels used in the educational process are provided and the general and professional competencies of the agroengineer are created, especially during the implementation of future specialists in agroindustrial production of higher education courses in the course of master’s and master’s studies. It is noted that the training of agroengineers for innovative project activities is carried out in accordance with the Law of Ukraine “On Higher Education” and the standards of higher education of Ukraine. The influence of interdisciplinarity in the system of cross-cutting project preparation on the readiness for implementation of production practical tasks is investigated. It is confirmed that the support-run elements of aggregates in the conditions of complex terrain contributes to the development of erosion processes and negatively affect the soil fertility. Any tire better satisfies the condition of permissible wheel pressure on the soil if the air pressure in the tire is low. Improving the technological process of manufacturing tires for agricultural purposes allows them to ensure their quality, reliability and operational safety.
Due to the small and strictly organized space of a train car, the internal dimensions offer limited possibilities to redesign and extend the luggage storage space in order to accommodate a larger baggage. In order to have easy access and to be user friendly, the aim of this paper is to design an external baggage storage system for passenger trains. The system proposed, has a chain transmission and it is designed to accommodate the biggest size luggage commercially available.
Conditions for applying of tools for the finishing processing of holes through surface plastic deformationpg(s) 143-147
The schemes of tools for Surface Plastic Deformation (SPD) in processing holes is the most spread method in the processing engineering. Rotation rolls (balls, cone-shape or spherical rolls) are being used as deforming elements. They deform through axial feeding, rolling over the processed surface. There are two main groups of tools – “Tools operating with axial feeding“ and “Tools with radial feeding“. The main feature of the tools with axial feeding is the helical character of the trajectory of the deforming elements on the processed surface. These tools have some disadvantages which could be avoided by using the tools with radiall feeding, the tools with periodical radial feeding and the tools with dynamic work.
Concerns about greenhouse gas emissions and environment protection in general, lead to application of new, eco-friendly solutions in almost all areas of human activities. Today, transportation is in the focus of many researchers since transport units generate substantial emissions locally as well as globally. Turning to electricity powered transportation units seems to be a logical step if global power production transitions to renewable energy sources (large hydro, wind, solar, biomass, etc). This paper demonstrates a technical solution applicable to reefer containers railway transport, as an alternative to road transport with conventional trucks or railway transport with diesel gen-sets. In fact, reefer containers are frequently used to transport sensitive goods. Therefore, containers must be almost constantly supplied with electric power to maintain desired ambient parameters (temperature, humidity, number of air changes per hour, etc.). An innovative technical solution which provides suitable power supply to reefer containers aboard wagons has been developed and tested in real-life conditions. Electrical power is drawn from the locomotive’s single-phase, head-end-power line (usually 1500 Vac, 1500 Vdc or 3000 Vdc), available at the locomotive, or on wagons with electric installation. Throughout the paper, the developed static converter system suitable for transforming single-phase 1500 Vac, into three-phase 400 Vac, 50 Hz is presented. Furthermore, a dedicated communication system is developed which enables users to perform supervision of transported goods (temperature and relative humidity) and track the reefer container onboard railway wagons.
The influence 2% adhesion promoter on coefficeint of friction of OPP, PE and PET films has been added into flexographic inkspg(s) 137-138
For a numbers of years, flexo printing has been one of the most important processes for the printing and other products in the high quality required. Today printing technology is highly automated in all phases of processing. Production times have shortened, while the quality of the final product has been improved steadily
Study of the power interaction of a movable block composed of two boring tools with the elements of the technological systempg(s) 118-126
SYSTEMIn the paper is analyzed the dynamics of a movable block, consist of two boring tool with oppositely positioned cutting inserts, applied as a cutting part of tools for combined machining of deep holes by cutting and surface plastic deformation. Tribo-mechanical and force dependencies were derived, connecting the geometry of the cutting inserts and the friction forces in the contact surfaces of the block with its working capacity.
The desalination is an important technological process applied not only to obtain drinking water, but also for wastewater treatment from e.g. dyes, textile and mining industry. In this process, membrane processes such as reverse osmosis, pervaporation, electrodialysis and membrane distillation are quite commonly used. This work focuses on membrane distillation. The research was carried out in order to produce membranes absorbing solar radiation, to use this energy in the distillation process. Membranes were produced using the phase inversion method from polysulfone polymer at various proportions of ingredients to select the optimal blend composition. The fabricated membranes were investigated to assess wettability, maximum pore size and execute preliminary tests of the membrane distillation process.
The paper discusses the gradual transition from conventional tillage through reduced tillage to no-tillage while creating favourable conditions for increase of organic matter. The paper suggests crop and tillage method rotation for a period of five years in order to facilitate this transition. It also reviews tests of soil physical properties which can help farmers determine how their soils are changing and what effect the change of tillage method has on them.
The article is discussing the possible options for the implementation of potential energy, which is contained in the gas pipeline in the form of pressure, which is actually lost when the gas is reduced at the GDS. Improving energy efficiency is a major challenge for Bulgaria’s economic development. The extensive development of Bulgaria’s gas pipeline network and the increase in the level of gasification also increases the energy that is actually released into the atmosphere. Are considered various options for the implementation of overpressure for the purpose of increasing energy efficiency, the realization of which will not only improve the efficiency of the construction of the distribution network of gas pipelines, but also will partially solve the problem of the widespread introduction of road transport on electricity and liquefied gas.
For the purpose of freshwater supply for ships, we have explored the desalination process of sea water by electrodialysis. From the analysis of the obtained results, the desalination process of the Black Sea water by electrodialysis has been explored. The average salt content of the Black Sea water is 15-16 g/l, and the global ocean water – 35 g/l, while the salt content in water from the Baltic Sea is 5.77 g/l. The Black Sea water was diluted with fresh water up to a concentration of 5.77 g/l.
Electrodalysis is the most effective method for desalination of natural waters with low salinity. So, we have taken water equivalent
to salt water content of the Baltic Sea water. Desalination of this water is effective and requires little energy. To reduce salt content of sea water, the separation was carried out on reverse osmosis membranes with a selectivity of 70%, and then the penetrant was separated by electrodialysis. Every 5 minutes, the solution loses 55.8% of salt. During the treatment (45 min), water is desalinated up to a concentration of 51.2 mg/l, and it can be used for industrial (technical) or household purposes. Calculation have shown that the selectivity of membranes during desalination was 99.11%.
As a result, on the basis of theoretical and experimental studies of seawater desalination by electrodialysis, there have been developed the principal circuits of the system of environmental safety of ballast water and water treatment facilities in the port, for environmental safety of ballast water and for obtaining industrial water.