Agro-informatics data for protecting agricultural crops from frost

  • 1 Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnology and Plant Protection “Nikola Poushkarov” – Sofia


The risk of frost is a serious problem for crop production, especially in the spring season when crops are most vulnerable to sudden temperature changes. Autumn frost is a limiting factor for the yield and quality of the produced products. The frequency of frosts in years varies greatly for different agricultural areas according to their geographical location and altitude, topographic features, presence of water basins, typical movements or directions of air masses and depends on the type, condition and care of the specific agricultural crops. To view the danger of frost, the concepts of “first and last” frost have been used in practice, which denote the first and last drop in temperatures to or below 0 °C within the biological vegetation period of plants in the specific calendar year. The article reviews the global practice of providing databases on the risk of frost damage to agricultural crops.



  1. Allen, C.C. 1957. A simplified equation for minimum temperature prediction. Monthly Weather Review, 85: 119-120.
  2. Bagdonas, A., Georg, J.C. & Gerber, J.F. 1978. Techniques of frost prediction and methods of frost and cold protection. World Meteorological Organization Technical Note, No. 157. Geneva, Switzerland. 160p.
  3. Blanc, M.L., Geslin, H., Holzberg, I.A. & Mason, B. 1963. Protection against frost damage. WMO, Technical Note, No. 51. Geneva, Switzerland. 62p.
  4. Bettencourt, M.L. 1980. Contribuição para o estudo das geadas em Portugal Continental [in Portuguese]. In: O Clima de Portugal, Fasc. XX. Lisbon: I.N.M.G.
  5. Cellier, P. 1982. Contribution à prévision des températures minimales nocturnes en conditions de gelées de printemps. Etude de l’évolution des températures de l'air et du sol au cours de la nuit [in French]. PhD Thesis, INA Paris-Grignon.
  6. Cellier, P. 1993. An operational model for predicting minimum temperatures near the soil surface under clear sky conditions. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 32(5): 871-883.
  7. Cunha, F.R. 1982. 0 problema da geada negra no Algarve [in Portuguese]. INIA Divulgação No. 12. 125p.
  8. Cunha, J.M. 1952. Contribuição para o estudo do problema das geadas em Portugal. [in Portuguese] Relatório final do Curso de Engenheiro Agrónomo. I.S.A., Lisbon.
  9. Hewett, E.W. 1971. Preventing frost damage to fruit trees. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research (DSIR) Information Series, No. 86. 55p.
  10. Hogg, W.H. 1971. Spring frosts. Agriculture, 78(1): 28- 31.
  11. Hogg, W.H. 1950. Frequency of radiation and wind frosts during spring in Kent. Meteorological Magazine, 79: 42- 49.
  12. Kalma, J.D., Laughlin, G.P., Caprio, J.M. & Hamer, P.J.C. 1992. Advances in Bioclimatology, 2. The Bio climatology of Frost. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.144p.
  13. Krasovitski, B., Kimmel, E. & Amir, I. 1996. Forecasting earth surface temperature for the optimal application of frost protection methods. Journal of Agricultural Engineering Research, 63: 93-102.
  14. Lawrence, E.N. 1952. Frost investigation. Meteorological Magazine, 81: 65-74.
  15. Mota, F.S. 1981. Meteorologia Agrícola [in Portuguese]. 5th ed. São Paulo, Brazil: Liv. Nobel.
  16. Sutherland, R.A. 1980. A short-range objective nocturnal temperature forecasting model. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 19: 247-255.
  17. Ventskevich, G.Z. [1958]. Agrometeorology. Translated from the Russian by the Israel Programme for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, 1961.
  18. Vitkevich, V.I. [1960]. Agricultural Meteorologist. Translated from the Russian by the Israel Programme for Scientific Translation, Jerusalem, 1963.
  19. Raposo, J.R. 1967. A defesa das plantas contra as geadas [in Portuguese]. Junta de Colonização Interna, Est. Téc. No.7. 111p.
  20. Young, F.D. 1920. Forecasting minimum temperatures in Oregon and California. Monthly Weather Review, 16: 53- 60.
  21. White, G.F. & Haas, J.E. 1975. Assessment of Research on Natural Hazards. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The MIT Press. 487p.

Article full text

Download PDF