In this paper, a novel patent-pending approach based on optical detection will be described. Various functionalized nanofiber materials have been used to demonstrate feasibility of realization of miniature sensors of biomedical and chemical values (enzymes reactions, metal ions content, etc.). Compactness and sensitivity of the sensors are significantly enhanced through original hybrid fiber-optic/nanofiber design. The potential of the new detection principle for security applications (forensic, seal intrusion, etc.) will be discussed.