A mathematical pathway to achieve sustainable design and friendly management of combined biodiesel/dairy supply chain

  • 1 Prof. Dr Assen Zlatarov University Burgas, Bulgaria
  • 2 Bulgarian Academy of Science, Sofia, Bulgaria


This study proposes a mathematical pathway to achieve sustainable design and resource-friendly management of a biodiesel supply chain produced from dairy waste scum. In the work, the features of a combined biodiesel/dairy supply chain are outlined and a set of design and management tools is developed, which is formulated in MILP terms. The optimization criterion is defined in terms of economic sustainability and environmental assessment data is applied as part of it. The purpose of the defined mathematical model is to obtain optimal operating conditions of the considered combined supply chain. A test example based on a case study from Bulgaria was considered. The results of the toolbox implementation can be used as a decision-making tool.



  1. P.S. Nigam, A. Singh. Production of liquid biofuels from renewable resources. Prog. Energy Comb. Sci., 37, 52–68, (2011).
  2. O. Fatiha, K. Mariam, B. Mustapha, K. Mohamed, Z. Mahfoud. Large-scale biodiesel production from Moroccan used frying oil. Inter J. Hydro Energy, 41, 21022–21029, (2016).
  4. K. Dutta, A. Daverey, J.G. Lin. Evolution retrospective for alternative fuels: first to fourth generation. Renew. Energy, 69, 114–122, (2014). renene.2014.02.044.
  5. O.A. Olubunmi, A.D. Folasegun. Production of biodiesel from Calophyllum inophyllum oil using a cellulose-derived catalyst. Biom. Bioenerg, 70, 239–248, (2014).
  6. M. Hajjari, M. Tabatabaei, M. Aghbashlo, H. Ghanavati. A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization. Renew. Sustain Energy Rev., 72, 445–464, (2017).
  7. K.A. Zahan, M. Kano. Biodiesel production from palm oil, its by-products, and mill effluent: a review. Energies, 11, 2132, (2018).
  8. P. Sivakumar, K. Anbarasu, S. Renganathan. Bio-diesel production by alkali catalyzed transesterification of dairy waste scum, Fuel, 90, 147-151, (2011).
  9. A.H. Demirbas. Inexpensive oil and fats feedstocks for production of biodiesel, Energy Education Science And Technology Part A Energy Science And Research, 23, 1-13, (2009).
  10. S. Qadeer, A. Khalid, S. Mahmood, M. Anjum, Z. Ahmad. Utilizing oleaginous bacteria and fungi for cleaner energy production. J. Clean. Prod., 168, 917–928, (2017).
  11. S.J. Kumar, R. Banerjee. Enhanced lipid extraction from oleaginous yeast biomass using ultrasound assisted extraction: a greener and scalable process. Ultrason. Sonochem., 52, 25– 32, (2019).
  12. S.K. Yellapu, N. Klai, R. Kaur, R.D. Tyagi. Surampalli, R.Y.Oleaginous yeast biomass flocculation using bioflocculant produced in wastewater sludge and transesterification using petroleum diesel as a co-solvent. Renew. Energy, 131, 217– 228, (2019).
  13. K.V. Yatisha, H.R. Harsha Hebbar, M. Sakara, R. Geetha Balakrishna, A comprehensive review on dairy waste-scum as a potential feedstock for biodiesel production. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 160, 921–947, (2022).
  14. B. Karmakar, G. Halder. Progress and future of biodiesel synthesis: Advancements in oil extraction and conversion technologies, Energy Conversion and Management, 182, 307- 339, (2019).
  15. A. Kelessidis, A.S. Stasinakis. Comparative study of the methods used for treatment and final disposal of sewage sludge in European countries Waste Management, 32, 1186-1195, (2012).
  16. J. Allen, M. Browne, A. Hunter, J. Boyd, H. Palmer. Logistics management and costs of biomass fuel supply. Int. J. Phys. Distrib. Logist. Manag., 28, 463-477, (1998).
  17. B. Ivanov, S. Stoyanov. A mathematical model formulation for the design of an integrated biodieselpetroleum diesel blends system, Energy, 99, 221–236, (2016).
  18. B. Ivanov, D. Nikolova, E. Kirilova , R.Vladova. A MILP approach of optimal design of a sustainable combined dairy and biodiesel supply chain using dairy waste scum generated from dairy production, Computers and Chemical Engineering, 166, 107976, (2022).

Article full text

Download PDF