• 1 Faculty of Technics and Technologies of Trakia University, Stara Zagora, Bulgaria
  • 2 Institute of Soil Science, Agrotechnologies and Plant Protection "Nikola Pushkarov", Sofia, Bulgaria
  • 3 Faculty of Technics and Technologies of Trakia University Stara Zagora, Bulgaria


Improvement of applied modern mechanized technologies for growing and harvesting of corn, introduction of hybrids with a low and strong stem, suitable for thicker sowing, irrigation, etc. Lead to an increase in average grain yield per hectare.

The best precursors for corn are bean cultures, peas, alfalfa etc. Keeping this crop rotation turns out to be appropriate for successful weed control. Permanent cultivation of corn is also perceived, but it should not last for more than three consecutive years on the same area. In addition, corn is also eligible for cultivation in the case of reduced soil cultivation, incl. And through direct sowing. Obviously, with these extensive opportunities for crop rotation, account should be taken of the period of natural soil compaction and of the type of soil. Production and protection is carried out by two technologies: harvesting of cobs and harvesting of grain.

The main advantages of the first technology are the following: harvesting can be done at higher grain humidity (about 30%) when the stems are still green and can be ensiled; No additional energy costs are required to dry the grain; Timely release of sowing areas for subsequent crops.

When grain maize is harvested, the development of the maturity phase and the decrease of grain moisture should be observed, as the maturity increases considerably in the harvest losses. With the prolongation of the maize harvest, the biological losses are particularly high mainly due to fallen cobs, which reach up to 25%.

With the maturity phase of corn growing, the productivity of combine harvesters’ increases, but taking into account the increase in losses, the optimal harvesting time for corn should be done on an economic basis.


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