Mechanized harvesting of sesame is not solved problem in many places in the world because of significant losses of seeds. The essence of the problem consists in the fact that sesame capsules release seeds due to a slight mechanical impact or by the wind when ripening. For solving the problem in Bulgaria the sesame research is conducted in two directions. The first is selection sesame varieties, suitable for mechanized harvesting and the second is adaptation of existing equipment and development of new for harvesting sesame seeds. In 2015 has been developed a method for assessment the susceptibility of sesame genotypes for mechanized harvesting of the seed. The method is based on an impact of a pendulum and on calculation of three indices. The first index is a criterion for self releasing of seeds from capsules, the second index is a criterion for retention seeds in capsules and the third index – for strength of the link between seeds and placenta. The method was applied to assess the susceptibility of sesame varieties for mechanized harvesting as well as to choice parental pairs in the selection of new sesame genotypes. A lot of new sesame genotypes have been selected and they have higher indices then existing. Representative studies for mechanized harvesting the seed have been done through five different technologies and machines in Bulgaria. The best results are shown by the two new developed devices. The first is for feeding sesame stems into harvesting machine. It squanders 3.4 times less sesame seeds than the grain harvester Wintersteiger – Hege 160 at parallel harvesting of hybrid f3/361-6-3 at seed moisture content of 8.9%. The second is for inertial threshing of sesame seeds. It threshes over 95% of seeds of non-shattering varieties Aida and Nevena without reducing their germination at seed moisture content from 12.2 to 13.3% while the conventional thresher decreases germination with 27%. The productivity of the conventional thresher is 1.4 times higher than that of the inertial thresher. The total power consumed by the inertial thresher is 4.81 times smaller than by the conventional thresher, because it does not deform stems and capsules during operation.
- Georgiev, S., 2000. State, Problems and Prospects of selection of sesame in Bulgaria. Bulgarian journal of agricultural science, ISSN 1310-0351. 3, p. 18-21 (BG).
- Georgiev, S., 2002. Selection of sesame varieties suitable for mechanized harvesting. Bulgarian journal of plant science, ISSN 0568-465X, 1-2, p. 22-26, (BG).
- Georgiev, S., S. Stamatov, M. Deshev., 2008. Requirements to sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) cultivars for mechanized harvesting. Bulgarian journal of agricultural science, ISSN 1310- 0351, vol. 14, 6 p. 616 - 620
- Georgiev, S., S. Stamatov, M. Deshev., 2011. Analysis of heterosis and combining ability in some morphological characters in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.). Bulgarian journal of agricultural science, ISSN 1310-0351, vol. 17, 4 p. 456-464.
- Georgiev, C., S. Stamatov, Deshev M., 2012. Assessment of the selection criteria in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) using phenotypic correlations and Path analysis. Bulgarian journal of plant science, ISSN 0568-465X, IV ,10, pp. 71-76.
- Georgiev, St., Stamatov St. and Deshev M., 2014. Selection of parental pairs in the hybridization of sesame whip aimed at the creation of cultivars for mechanical harvesting, applying quantitative and complex assessment of the source material. Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 6 Issue 16, p. 39-45. 7. ISSN 1313-6577 (Bg).
- Ishpekov, S., S. Stamatov, St. Georgiev, A. Trifonov., 2008. Shock shattering indices of non-burst sesame capsules. Sleskostopanska technika, 3, p. 17 -20, ISSN 0037-1718, (BG).
- Ishpekov, S., P. Petrov, A. Triffonov, I. Dimitrov, Z. Mihaylova, D. Aleksandrov, S. Stamatov, M. Deshev, B. Kolev., 2012. Indices for picking single sesame capsules. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, ISSN 1310-0351, 18 (No 4) 18: 635-640, ISSN 1310-0351, (BG);
- Ishpekov, S., Petrov, P. Trifonov, A., Georgiev, M., 2014. Feasibility indicators of operations for mechanized cultivation and harvesting of sesame with a combine harvester. Mechanization of agriculture, LX, 1, ISSN 0861-9638;
- Ishpekov S., R. Zaykov, V. Chervenkov., 2015 a. Inertial detachment of sesame seeds from non-squander genotypes. Agric Eng Int: CIGR Journal. Vol. 17, No. 3, ISSN 1682-1130;
- Ishpekov, S., Stamatov, S., 2015 b. Method for assessment the susceptibility of sesame genotypes for mechanized harvesting of the seed. Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, ISSN 1310- 0351, 21 (No 6) December , ISSN 1310-0351, p 1230 - 1233;
- Langham D. R., 2014 b. Pygmy sesame plants for mechanical harvesting, 2014. Patent US 8,664,472 B2·.
- Naydenov, N., Ishpekov, S., Zaykov R., 2016. Opportunities for Mechanical Feeding of Sesame Plants in Harvesting Machine. Proceedings of University of Ruse - 2016, volume 55, book 1.1., SAT- 8.121-1-AMT-05. p 27 - 33, (BG).
- Stamatov, S. 2010. Establishing appropriate defoliants and ways of defoliation and desiccation of sesame suitable for mechanized harvesting without reducing the yield and the quality of the seeds. Agricultural equipment, pcs. 1, pp. 36-41, (BG);
- Stamatov, S., Deshev, M., 2010. Model of breeding for high yields in non-shattering sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) suitable for mechanized harvesting. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Science, ISSN 0568-465X, 2, p. 99 – 101.
- Stamatov, S., Deshev, M., 2012. Assessment of the possibilities to increase the number of fruit boxes in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) using factor analysis. Bulgarian Journal of Plant Science, ISSN 0568-465X, 6, pp. 81-84.
- Stamatov, St., Ishpekov, S., Deshev, M., Zaykov, R., (2017). Application of the independent subjective evaluation method of the hybrid material in the breeding of sesame (Sesamum indicum L). Bulgarian Journal of Agricultural Science, ISSN 1310- 0351, 23 (No 4) 2017, 584–588
- Trifonov, A., Petrov, P., Ishpekov, S., Georgiev, S., Stamatov, S. & Deshev M., 2013. Harvesting sesame with a combine harvester in the conditions of Bulgaria. Mechanization of Agriculture, issue 4, ISSN 0861-9638, (BG).
- Zaykov, R., Ishpekov, S., Naydenov, N., Triffonov, A., 2017. Power consumption at inertial threshing of sesame. Mechanization of Agriculture, LXI, ISSN 0861-9638, 1/2017, Bulgaria, p. 26 - 29, (BG).