Research of efficiency of conventional production of mercantile corn was held on production parcels in agroecological conditions of Posavina in a period of vegetation in 2017. In order to define costs of crop management from the point of view of energy and production aspects, in certain stages of production of corn grain, energy consumption and utilization of the horsepower of the tractor was monitored. During working operations the maximum amount of fuel was spent for ploughing ( plough Leopard- L 30.3 VK aggregated with tractor Belarus 82.1 ) 26,4 l/ha, while the smallest amount was spent in chemical crop protection ( sprayer RAU aggregated with tractor Universal UTB 450 ) 2,7L/ha. Accordingly, efficiency in various operations of production varied within 10-20% span. In our experiment efficiency varied from 6,91% during fertilization to 23,33% in the process of ploughing, which is in this case within optimum limits. In direct input almost one third or 27,13% went for the basic tillage system ( 81,77 kWh/ha ) with a very high fuel usage of 23,33%. If we look at energy value of production of corn grains energy output will be 75243,20 MJ/ha with a ratio of 16,178 which is considered to be quite high, and productivity of 1,273 kg/MJ. In order to get the full picture of the above production of corn and energy outcome and not concentrating only on grain production, it is essential to include in energy analysis significant amounts of plant residues, that is maize biomass, which doubles the mentioned energy ratio to 31,846 and hence overall productivity of energy circulation in this production.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 1
Table of Contents
In the paper is discussed an energy saving effect of implementation at pig-breeding farms the automatic system of distribution the liquid feeds multi-times per day. There is given a mathematical description of the intellectual functions of the operator transferred to the PLC program of the control system. There is quantitatively estimated an energy saving effect of distribution the liquid feeds multi-times per day compared to twice per day.
Olive cultivation is a traditional symbol of the Mediterranean climate zone. It is important to harvest the olive fruit at the appropriate time and to collect the whole product without damaging the trees during this harvest. Damage of fruits during harvesting directly affects the product quality and thus the producer’s earnings. There are three main technologies commonly used in olive harvesting. The first of these; It is a hook type olive harvesting machine that performs the harvesting process by giving vibration to tree branches. Secondly; combs type are harvesting machines that vibrate given directly to the fruits and also the leaves and thin branches. The third is the trunk shaker type olive harvesting machines which take action from the tractor and vibrate to the trunk of the tree. In this study, some olive harvesting machines used in Turkey are compared in terms of performance and efficiency. Within the scope of the study, both domestic production and imported technologies are included. As a result, it has been found that the shaker type olive harvesters have a higher performance as expected. In contrast, the cost of this technology is higher than other olive harvesting technologies. Comb type olive harvest technologies are left behind in terms of performance compared to other harvest technologies. However, the costs of these machines are much cheaper than other olive harvesting technologies. On the other hand, it causes more damage to fruits and leaves.
The purpose is to reduce the energy costs of soil tillage by developing more accurate methods for assessing the effectiveness of surface-plane and space-deep interaction of the needle with the soil. It is noted that the result of the interaction of the round needle of rotary harrow with the soil, there is a hole of regular shape with an ellipse at the base. The change in the semi-axis of the ellipse formed at the soil-air interface is analyzed. The developed method improves the accuracy of forecasting and evaluating the effectiveness of the rotary harrow needle interaction with the ground. The method creates the prerequisites for improving the quality and energy indicators of the technological processes of soil treatment with rotary harrows
Mechanized harvesting of sesame is not solved problem in many places in the world because of significant losses of seeds. The essence of the problem consists in the fact that sesame capsules release seeds due to a slight mechanical impact or by the wind when ripening. For solving the problem in Bulgaria the sesame research is conducted in two directions. The first is selection sesame varieties, suitable for mechanized harvesting and the second is adaptation of existing equipment and development of new for harvesting sesame seeds. In 2015 has been developed a method for assessment the susceptibility of sesame genotypes for mechanized harvesting of the seed. The method is based on an impact of a pendulum and on calculation of three indices. The first index is a criterion for self releasing of seeds from capsules, the second index is a criterion for retention seeds in capsules and the third index – for strength of the link between seeds and placenta. The method was applied to assess the susceptibility of sesame varieties for mechanized harvesting as well as to choice parental pairs in the selection of new sesame genotypes. A lot of new sesame genotypes have been selected and they have higher indices then existing. Representative studies for mechanized harvesting the seed have been done through five different technologies and machines in Bulgaria. The best results are shown by the two new developed devices. The first is for feeding sesame stems into harvesting machine. It squanders 3.4 times less sesame seeds than the grain harvester Wintersteiger – Hege 160 at parallel harvesting of hybrid f3/361-6-3 at seed moisture content of 8.9%. The second is for inertial threshing of sesame seeds. It threshes over 95% of seeds of non-shattering varieties Aida and Nevena without reducing their germination at seed moisture content from 12.2 to 13.3% while the conventional thresher decreases germination with 27%. The productivity of the conventional thresher is 1.4 times higher than that of the inertial thresher. The total power consumed by the inertial thresher is 4.81 times smaller than by the conventional thresher, because it does not deform stems and capsules during operation.
One of the main ways of obtaining high yields is a method of sowing and technology for its implementation. At present in the world practice, the creation of high-performance and adapted to certain soil-climatic conditions, sowing units is moving in two directions: increasing the degree of combination (versatility) of sowing machines and the use of centralized tanks for seeds and fertilizers, and pneumatic sowing systems.
However, models of seeders with CVS do not fully meet agro technical requirements for uniformity of sowing between coulters and are aggregated only with a specific tractor class, while having a high cost and low annual load. In this connection, the creation of high-performance and adapted to certain soil and climatic conditions of Kazakhstan is very relevant.
Feeding of rooster sires with sprouted grain significantly increases their productivity. A new acoustic cavitation method of intensification of grain sprouting process is offered. In water sound waves are created. When passing sound waves in water in a vakuummetric phase liquid is broken off with formation of cavitational cavities. These cavities collapse in a manometrical phase of a sound wave. Influence of the collapsing cavitational cavities causes a stress of biological object, its fast awakening and the accelerated development. At the same time there is a heating and decrease in viscosity of liquid substances, increase of speed of chemical, physical, biological processes. Massage action from a collapse on membranes of cages strengthens diffusion and a metabolism through membranes and in cages. Dynamic impulses kill pathogenic microorganisms, and without chemical reagents and at low temperatures (200 – 300), that is without destruction of protein and mechanical damages etc.
Wheat seeds were treated in the passive zone of a vortex cavitator. This resulted in germinating ability increase on the third day from 43% to 88%, or in germination time reduction from three to one day along with the quality level comparable with the control lots. Germination ability of vortex cavitator-treated seeds at all modes, except for t=500, exceeds the germination ability of control lots sprouted with a traditional method.
Excess germination ability of the treated seeds in rela tion to the control lots is 200%, thus assuming a twofold feed quality improvement.
Germination ability of vortex cavitator-treated seeds after the first sprouting day is comparable with the control lot germination on the third day. This gives the possibility to reduce technological process time up to one day with the existing quality level. Irrigation of seeds treated in a vortex cavitator with water from the active cavitator zone increases germinating ability up to 97%, or reduces process time from three days to six hours providing the quality comparable with the original process.
In this method of processing some ways of impact on biological object are combined: soaking, thermal influence, vibration, cavitational, diffusive, etc. All seeds processed on a cavitator have the raised development indicators in relation to seeds of control party including on viability, energy of germination, this grain positively influences efficiency of roosters.
This article presents results of quality measurement of hose reel irrigation systems in farms dealing with cabbage and grain maize cultivation. Two hose reel irrigation machines RM 570 GX (with different manufacture dates 2001 and 2010) were examined in farm SUA, Ltd. Kolíňany. The quality of work, based on value of longitudinal irrigation uniformity, was evaluated from two views. First quality parameter was aimed on correct functioning of irrigation technique from the point of winding hose speed. Second quality parameter was the change of irrigation rate along the hose. Irrigation system RM 570 GX (manufacture date of irrigation machine 2001) achieved the average value of winding hose speed 17.46 m. h-1 (calibrated winding speed 17 m. h-1) and the achieved irrigation uniformity coefficient was Cu = 86.78 %. RM 570 GX (manufacture date of irrigation machine 2010) achieved the average value of winding hose speed 10.26 m. h-1 (calibrated winding speed 10 m. h-1) and the Cu coefficient was 92.85 %. According to Christiansen, the standard value for irrigation uniformity coefficient was Cu 90% or more. Irrigation machine with the date of manufacture 2001 did not reach the desired value, therefore we recommended more frequent inspection and maintenance of irrigation techniques.
Impact of watering regimes on apple yields under various meteorological conditions and micro irrigationpg(s) 35-38
Analysis of meteorological factors shows that the temperature sums during the vegetation of the main crops grow but are relatively stable, ie. they are not a limiting factor for their normal growth and development. Rainfall, however, in terms of quantityand distribution changes in a considerably wider range over ten days periods, months and years. The instability of this meteorological factor predetermines irrigation as a major event of the agro-technical complex, which is decisive for the achievement of high and sustainable yields.
Increasing water deficit requires the use of water-saving irrigation technologies in the practice of irrigated agriculture and the conduct of research to optimize irrigation regimes in order to increase the efficiency of irrigation water used. One of the ways to achieve this goal is irrigation with reduced irrigation norms while preserving the number of waterings. The advantage of these reduced irrigation regimes is the saving of water at acceptable yield losses. Their application is warranted when there is a possibility of accurate dosing of irrigation water and the irrigations are of low cost.
In order to establish the irrigation regime of apples in drip irrigation, field experiments were carried out on the Chelopechene- Sofia experimental field. Irrigation is carried out with a drop in pre-watering humidity to 85% of WHC and variants irrigated by a reduction of irrigation rate with 20% and 40% compared to the variant irrigated at 100% WHC and non-irrigated variant.
The conducted irrigated regimes during the years have had an impact on the yields obtained, with the highest results being obtained for the irrigated variants with 100% irrigation rate and the lowest for the non-irrigated variants. The largest increase in yield was obtained in 2004 (characterized as dry), which is with 55% (apples) more than non-irrigated variants, and the smallest increase of 25% (apples) was obtained during the humid 2005.
The relevant task of animal husbandry is to provide animals with high-quality and cheap feed protein. In this regard, a promising direction is the use of a protein feed additive, produced as a result of the microbiological synthesis of the yeast Debaryomyces hansenii var hansenii (D.f.v.) during the processing of milk whey. To assess the results of the applicability of this additive when feeding animals, comparative tests were carried out with chicken replacements. It was found that the introduction of domestic protein feed additive in the compound feed of chicken replacements, produced by processing milk whey, equal to the amount of fish meal (5%) according to energy and protein nutrition, contributes to an increase in the growth rate of young chickens by 5.2%; reduction of feed costs per 1 kg increase in body weight by 4.5%; a more active evidence of physiological maturation of young chickens (by changing the first-order flight feathers); and an evidence of sexual dimorphism (by the size of the caruncle) in comparison with the control group.
The article presents an example of producing a research paper by students aged between 14 and 15 years. Their research paper focused on examining the pollution of water sources in the vicinity of school. With the help of the colorimetric method we established the concentration of nitrates, nitrites, ammonium ions and phosphates as well as the pH value. In the National Laboratory of Health, Environment and Food they took care of the microbiological analysis of water. We found out that none of the samples were in compliance with the standards of the sanitary quality of water as regards their microbiological attributes. Nonetheless, chemical water attributes did not exceed the permitted levels set by regulations for potable water.
However, all of the analysed water samples could be used for irrigation and the watering of those plants that are further processed.