The dual-fuel combustion of ethanol and two different mixtures of ethanol and gasoline (E85 and E65) in a modified Diesel engine was investigated. With rising alcohol amount, a significant reduction of soot mass and particle count was observed at all operating points. At some load conditions, substituting diesel with ethanol, E65 or E85 led to a reduction of the NOx emissions, however, the real benefit concerning the nitrogen oxides was introduced by the mitigation of the soot-NOx trade-off, allowing higher EGR rates. With regard to the engine efficiency aspect, the results showed a bidirectional behaviour: at low load regimes engine efficiency degraded, whereas combustion became remarkably more efficient at higher engine loads. The measurements showed a high reduction of engine CO2 emissions in all cases, with the reduction being proportional to the alcoholic fuel energy share at the combustion. Ethanol sustainability is discussed based on the case study of an Austrian bio-ethanol producer.
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