Examination of the category of digitalisation of public services in the Digital Economy and Society Index among the Eastern Enlargement of EU

  • 1 University of Debrecen, 1 Square Egyetem, Debrecen. Hungary


The European Commission pays particular attention to the digital development of the economy and society. The Digital Economy and Society Index (DESI) has been an essential tool for measurement and monitoring since 2014. In 2021, the cardinal indicators of the DESI index were aligned with the 2030 Digital Compass targets, which have four key areas: digitally skilled population; secure and sustainable digital infrastructures; the digital transformation of businesses, and digitalisation of public services. In the present study, the authors examined the development of digital public services over the past five years, using σ-convergence to measure differences between the Member States and β-convergence to examine how countries could catch up. The individual indicators under the digital public service category have also been analysed to identify critical areas that need to be developed in the future for the digital public service to catch up with the leading Member States. The areas most needing improvement were user-centricity, transparency, and cyber security.



  1. A. Bassanini, S. Scarpetta, I. Visco, OECD Economics Department Working Papers 259, 39 (2000)
  2. European Commission, Digital Economy and Society Index (2021)
  3. European Commission, Digital Agenda for Europe (2021)
  4. Z. Bánhidi, I. Dobos, A. Nemeslaki, Regional Statistics, 10 (2020)
  5. Z. Bánhidi, I. Dobos, A. Nemeslaki, Vestn. St. Petersb. Univ.- Ekon. 35 (2019)
  6. R.J. Barro, I.M. Xavier Sala, O.J. Blanchard, R.E. Hall, Convergence Across States and Regions. Brookings Papers on Economic Activity 1991, 1991, 107-182, doi:10.2307/2534639.
  7. R.J. Barro, I.M. Xavier Sala, J. Polit. Econ. 100 (1992)
  8. F.P. Ramsey, The economic journal, 38 (1928)
  9. R.M.Solow, The quarterly journal of economics, 70 (1956)
  10. T.C. Koopmans, On the concept of optimal economic growth (New Heaven, Connecticut, 1963)
  11. R Core Team, A language and environment for statistical computing (Vienna, Austria, 2020)
  12. European Commission, Hungary in the Digital Economy and Society Index (2021)
  13. European Commission, Romania in the Digital Economy and Society Index (2021)
  14. European Commission, Bulgaria in the Digital Economy and Society Index (2020)

Article full text

Download PDF