Synthesis, phase composition and microstructure of colored ceramic materials based on diopside

  • 1 Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Metal Science, Equipment and Technologies with Hydro and Aerodynamics Centre “Acad. A. Balevski”, Sofia, Bulgaria


Experimental ceramic samples were obtained in which the presence of CaMgSi2O6 (predominant phase), MgCr2O4, CaAl2Si2O8 and quartz was detected by X-ray diffraction analysis. During the microscopic examination of the prepared sections, two mineral phases were established: main – clinopyroxene and secondary – green spinel. The presence of prismatic-granular and skeletal structure was found. In the formed dominant diopside phase the presence of numerous inclusions of magnesium-chromium spinel with green color (sizes up to 0,05 mm) was observed evenly distributed in the sections determining the characteristic green color of the samples.



  1. W. D. Kingery, H. K. Bowen, D. R. Uhlmann, “Introduction to ceramics”, Book, Second edition (N.Y, Wiley, 1976).
  2. J. S. Reed, “Introduction to the principles of ceramic processing”, Second edition, Book (Wiley, 1995).
  3. M. W. Barsoum, “Fundamentals of ceramics”, Book (McGraw- Hill, 997).
  4. M. N. Rahaman, “Ceramic processing and sintering”, Book, Second edition (CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, 2003).
  5. E. Gerasimov, A. Gerasimov, A. Atanasov, V. Toshev, D. Petkov, D. Ivanov, L. Georgieva, L. Pavlova, N. Drenska, P. Vinarov, P. Petrov, S. Buchvarov, S. Panova, S. Bagarov, S. Serbezov, S. Stefanov, S. Djambasov, T. Stoikova, T. Dackova, H. Berlinov, “Technology of ceramic products and materials”, Book (in Bulgarian), Edited by prof. Dr. Dipl. Ing. Svetlan Buchvarov, (IK “Sarasvati”, Sofia, 2003).
  6. R. B. Heimann, “Classic and Advanced Ceramics: From Fundamentals to Applications”, Book (Wiley‐ VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2010).
  7. E. S. Kharashvili, “Trends in developing ceramic pigments (review)”, Glass and Ceramics, vol. 42 (1985), pp. 459-463.
  8. F. Ren, S. Ishida, N. Takeuchi, K. Fujiyoshi, “Chromium-based ceramic colors”, Ceram. Bull., 71 (1992) 759-764 .
  9. F. Bondioli, A. M. Ferrari, C. Leonelli, T. Manfredini, “Syntheses of Fe2O3/silica red inorganic inclusion pigments for ceramic applications”, Materials Research Bulletin, 33 (1998) 5-11.
  10. A. Escardino, S. Mestre, A. Barba, V. Beltran, A. Blasco, “Synthesis mechanism of an iron-chromium ceramic pigment” , J. Am. Ceram. Soc., 83, 1 (2000) 29-32.
  11. F. Bondioli, L. Barbieri, T. Manfredini, “Grey ceramic pigment (Fe, Zn)Cr2O4 obtained from industrial fly-ash”, Tile & Brick Int., 16 (2000) 246-248.
  12. F. Bondioli, L. Barbieri, T. Manfredini, “Grey ceramic pigment (Fe, Zn)Cr2O4 obtained from industrial fly-ash,” Tile & Brick International, vol. 16, No. 4 (2000) 246–248.
  13. J. Calbo, M. Llusar, M. Tena, “Environmental characterization of ceramic pigment industrial wastes”, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. V., 41 (2002) 311-317.
  14. V. Gomes, A. P. N. de Oliveira, J. A. Labrincha, “Ceramic pigment based on mullite structure obtained from Al-sludge containing formulations,” The American Ceramic Society Bulletin, vol. 84 (2005) 9501-9504.
  15. F. Matteucci, C. Lepri Neto, M. Dondi, G. Cruciani, G. Baldi, A. O. Boschi, “Colour development of red perovskite pigment Y(Al,Cr)O3 in various ceramic applications”, Advances in Applied Ceramics, 105 (2006) 99–106.
  16. G. Costa, M. J. Ribeiro, J. A. Labrincha, “Development of waste-based ceramic pigments”, Bol. Soc. Esp. Ceram. Vidrio, 46 (2007) 7–13.
  17. R. I. Lazau, C. Pacurariu, D. Becherescu, R. Ianos, “Ceramic pigments with chromium content from leather wastes”, J. Eur. Ceram. Soc. 27, 2 (2007) 1899-1903.
  18. M. Selvaraj, S. Palraj, K. Maruthan, G. Venkatachari, “Physico-chemical properties of ceramic pigments for high-temperature application”, Progress in Organic Coatings, 62 (2008) 326–330.
  19. J. Kumar Kar, R. Stevens, C. R. Bowen, “Processing and characterisation of various mixed oxide and perovskite-based pigments for high temperature ceramic colouring application”, Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 461 (2008) 77–84.
  20. G. Costa, V. P. Della, M. J. Ribeiro, J. A. Labrincha, “Forming black spinel pigment from industrial sludge”, Am. Ceram. Soc. Bull., 87 (2008) 9101-9107.
  21. P. M. T. Cavalcante, M. Dondi, G. Guarini, M. Raimondo, G. Baldi, “Colour performance of ceramic nano-pigments”, Dyes and Pigments, 80 (2009) 226–232.
  22. S. Mestre, M. P. Gómez-Tena, M. F. Gazulla, A. Gozalbo, “Interaction of the chromium–iron black pigment with porcelanised stoneware”, Ceram. Int., 39 (2013) 7453–7459.
  23. J. Carneiro, D. M. Tobaldi, M. N. Capela, R. M. Novais, M. P. Seabra, J. A. Labrincha, “Synthesis of ceramic pigments from industrial wastes: Red mud and electroplating sludge”, Waste Management, 80 (2018) 371–378.

Article full text

Download PDF