Journal section: MACHINES
Gastronorm Container Production with Automatic Pressure Compensation System Machine Providing Energy Efficiency with Industry 4.0pg(s) 369-372
With the developing food industry applications, the use of gastronorm containers is also increasing rapidly. It is widely used to transport, cook, preserve and serve gastronorm containers and food products. In line with international standards (EN 631-1, EN 631-2, etc.), the production process becomes more complex as the depth of gastronorm containers increases (from 20 mm to 200 mm / 6 different depths) and the process steps increase. Due to the errors arising from the process stages, there is an increase in the number of rejects, and thus energy efficiency is adversely affected. An automatic pressure balancing system design has been developed in accordance with the workflow in gastronorm container manufacturing with deep drawing technology. Providing the elimination of excess pressure steps and heat treatment needed in deep gastronorm containers (sizes and depths respectively: 1/2 200 mm, 1/3 150 mm, 1/3 200 mm, etc.), as well as the unique design of the integrated deburring machine, a significant innovation with industry 4.0 application has been imparted. Thus, in addition to the increase in product quality, it contributed to reducing unit costs by reducing high waste rates below 5%.
Due to the pandemic conditions we have been in in recent years, the need for disinfectant products in the hygiene sector has increased considerably. In this context, in order to meet the disinfectant wet wipes demand, the need to make the existing wet wipe production machines work with alcohol has arisen. In project scope; Wet wipes packaging machine, which is suitable for working with isopropyl alcohol, meets all the necessary conditions and is equipped to prevent the danger of explosion, was built.. Also the equipment to be used within the scope of the project and activities to be performed in the context of the new designs that will be revealed thanks to the alcohol completely reliable and relevant about working with the institutions and approved and fully ATEX compliant packaging machine, wet wipes faster than peers will emerge. By avoiding all possible risks, all possible problems that are undesirable, endanger human health and cause work accidents were prevented.
In the present publication are considered the features of the dual fuel four stroke lean burn engines supercharging system operational features. The supercharging system control means are analysed and performance data is collected from an engine in operation on an offshore vessel. The data obtained from the engine in operation is analysed, processed and figures of related parameters are obtained. The latter are analysed in relation to the importance of the supercharging technical condition. Conclusions and recommendations are stated as a final outcome.
Dependance on the required power of the electric motor on the CNC Spinner EL-510 lathe according to the depth of cut for turning and facing with CNMG 120408-PM 4325 tool insertpg(s) 228-230
A lathe is a machine that removes metal from a workpiece to the required shape and size. A lathe operates on the principle of a rotating workpiece and a fixed cutting tool. The cutting tool is fed into the workpiece, which rotates about its own axis, causing the workpiece to be formed into the desired shape. The operation by which the excess material is removed from the workpiece to produce a cone or cylindrical shape is called turning, and the operation used to cut a flat surface perpendicular to the workpiece’s rotational axis is called facing. Speed, feed, and depth of cut are important factors that have to be determined according to the power of the CNC Spinner EL-510 lathe using a PCLNR 2525M 12 shank tool and a CNMG 120408-PM 4325 tool insert.
Commercial dishwashers are among the most important products for commercial kitchen personnel as they clean dirty products (plates, glasses, cutlery, etc.) in a short time (between 1 and 4 minutes according to the program). In recent years, customers’ demands for energy-saving products have been increasing. Therefore, instead of using the electrical energy to be obtained after the combustion of natural gas in power plants, the use of direct natural gas in a commercial dishwasher contributes to reducing the carbon footprint. In this study, the original design studies of the combustion system of the innovative commercial dishwasher prototype using water heated with gas were carried out. For the first time in our country, the system that enables the heating of water with gas was designed as a module other than the existing commercial dishwasher. An independent combustion system has been developed to provide easy use to other commercial dishwashers on the market. Simulation studies have been used effectively in the design verification phase in order to provide the most efficient combustion conditions for different gases (natural gas and LPG) in the original designed combustion system. Combustion analyses were carried out by parametric study for different operating conditions. In the innovative commercial dishwasher prototype that uses water heated with gas, optimum temperature values have been obtained for effective washing at the water inlet and water outlet points of the uniquely designed combustion system. As a result of the tests and evaluations, the most effective working range of the innovative prototype was determined.
The assembly base is a permanent building site, where the elements of the track panel are assembled. It is characterized by large dimensions and weights of the processed parts and the final product. The report is based on observation and measurements of the existing assemble base in Kazichane and possibilities of modern computer technologies for modeling and simulation of the operation of the individual crane track elements. The unique of the studied crane track is that the rails are joined to half-sleepers lying on 1 m distance, not to a continuous beam, like in crane tracks in industry, and that the using materials are typical for the railway superstructu re.
This paper presents an energy analysis of middle-power steam turbine with two cylinders (High Pressure Cylinder – HPC and Low Pressure Cylinder – LPC) and steam re-heater after the HPC (and before the LPC). Based on a steam operating parameters from the literature, performed energy analysis show that LPC develops higher power and has higher energy efficiency (81.45%) in comparison to HPC (which energy efficiency equals 80.12%). Re-heater is a heat exchanger (flue gases are used for steam heating) which has low energy loss (824.19 kW) and high energy efficiency (97.76%), what is expected energy performance of such heat exchanger. The entire analyzed turbine develops a power of 127480.60 kW and has energy loss equal to 29848.21 kW with energy efficiency of 81.03%.
Solving the problems caused by the growth of M-S diversity belongs to the latest current scientific field of research in modern mechanics and electromechanics, which is generalized to the concept of structural and systems research with models of microevolution and macroevolution. If genetic synthesis allows to find new structures of M-S and spindle nodes on their basis, then for the synthesis of schemes and structures it is advisable to use a system-morphological approach. To develop a morphological model, functional (morphological) features are selected, which are divided into three groups in accordance with the modular principle: the modules of the rotational motion of the spindle, the drive feed -translational motion and the clamp-expansion
The technology of work in some industrial enterprises involves the using of the heavy lifting machines moving on a special railway track. The type and dimensions of the gantry crane and the crane track are in accordance to the size and weight of the processed loads and the final product. The gantry cranes and the crane tracks usually work outdoors in all weather conditions and aggressive environmental influences. Most of these facilities were built 30 ÷ 40 years ago. During this period the regulations and requirements for their operation have been changed. Digital technologies now allow more precise modeling and calculation of the structure of the crane track, as well as inspection the impact of individual elements on the stress state of the structure as a whole.
The effect of the present study will have the greatest impact on loading and unloading platforms in railway stations, harbors and intermodal terminals.
Development and implementation of closed loop position control concepts on electromechanical linear system using Beckhoff controllerpg(s) 116-119
Electromechanical linear axes are used as actuators in many areas of industrial automation. Such axes are a fundamental building block of any machine tool, manipulator or similar device, whether they implement only one- or multi-axis positioning. Usually, servomotors or stepper motors are used to drive the axes, and the control is performed by a variety of PLC controllers and controller con cepts. The paper presents the implementation of a multi-purpose electromechanical linear axis, which enables the study, research and comparison of various linear drive concepts and types of closed loop controllers. The linear axis incorporates two different motor types: a BLDC servomotor as well as a stepper electric motor, and thus also enables comparison of these two motor types and corresponding control concepts. A multi-core Beckhoff soft PLC is used as a controller, which can implement either built-in closed loop controllers or can also implement controllers designed in the Matlab/Simulink environment.
PID closed loop position controller built-in Beckhoff TwinCAT 3 is presented in the paper. Further on, it is compared by PID closed loop controller developed in Matlab/Simulink which was exported and imported into Beckhoff TwinCAT 3 environment in order to confirm the adequacy of importing and using Matlab/Simulink controllers on Beckhoff soft PLCs.
The report presents the design of a 13-roll leveler for straightening sheet blanks of complex configuration. The roll leveler is equipped with a mechanism for controlling the roll gap, which during the levelling process compensates for the elastic deformation of the housing and maintains the specified levelling conditions. The levelling process was analyzed using the finite element method (FEM) with the determination of forces acting on the rollers during levelling of sheet blanks up to 50 mm thick.