Maritime piracy and armed robbery evolution in 2008-2022

  • 1 Institute of Metal Science, Equipment and Technologies with Hydro- and Aerodynamics Centre ”Acad. A. Balevski”, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences (IMSETHAC – BAS), Sofia, Bulgaria


Maritime crime (piracy and armed robberies against vessels) are challenges to the shipping that have global impact on maritime trade and security. The evolution of this phenomenon is a dynamic process which is characterized by rapid changes both in terms of the number and severity of incidents and in their geographical concentration. This study traces the development of maritime crime over the past 15 years, divided into three 5-year periods. It is performed by analyzing the data collected and published by the International Maritime Bureau, concerning the number, character and location of incidents for the 2008-2022, in order to outline the trends in the contemporary sea piracy and armed robbery.



  1. IMB. Piracy and Armed Robbery against Ships. Annual reports for 2008–2022, taken from:
  2. report_2008.pdf
  3. report_2009.pdf
  4. report_2010.pdf
  5. industry_reports/maritime_imb_annual-report-2011.pdf
  7. Piracy_Report.pdf
  8. 2015/01/2014-Annual-IMB-Piracy-Report-ABRIDGED.pdf
  9. 2016/02/2015-Annual-IMB-Piracy-Report-ABRIDGED.pdf
  10. 2017/01/2016-Annual-IMB-Piracy-Report-ABRIDGED.pdf
  11. 2018/01/2017-Annual-IMB-Piracy-Report-Abridged.pdf
  12. 2018-world-wide-incidents-of-piracy-and-armed-robbery-against-ships/
  13. 2019-world-wide-incidents-of-piracy-and-armed-robbery-against-ships/
  14. 2020-world-wide-incidents-of-piracy-and-armed-robbery-against-ships/
  15. Annual-IMB-Piracy-Report.pdf
  16. Annual-IMB-Piracy-and-Armed-Robbery-Report.pdf
  17. Tumbarska A. Maritime Piracy and Armed Robbery Evolution in 2008-2017. International Scientific Journal "Security and Future", 2, 1, STUME, 2018, ISSN: 2535-0668, 18-21.
  18. Tumbarska A. Current Maritime Piracy Practices and Anti-piracy Protection. International Scientific Journal “Science, Business, Society”, 3, 3, STUME, 2018, ISSN: 2367-8380, 141- 144.
  19. Christopher A., S. Christopher. Combating Maritime Piracy. Council on Foreign Relations, March 2012. backgrounder/combating-maritime-piracy
  20. The Maritime Executive. Why Are Gulf of Guinea Pirates Shifting to Illegal Oil Bunkering? 4 December 2022. pirates-shifting-to-illegal-oil-bunkering
  21. The Maritime Executive. IMB Calls for Vigilance While Highlighting Drop in Piracy in 2022. 12 January 2023. while-highlighting-drop-in-piracy-in-2022

Article full text

Download PDF