Analysis of the eco-indicators for bulgaria and opportunities for their improvement through the sectors of the green economy

  • 1 Business Faculty – University of Food Technology -Plovdiv, Bulgaria


Protecting the environment is vital to keeping life on the planet as we know it. Climate change is a global challenge with a clear complex nature in various aspects – environmental, social, technological, economic and political. At the international and national level, climate change policy is implemented mainly in two directions: 1. climate change mitigation through measures and activities to reduce greenhouse gases and 2. adaptation to the inevitable climate change by assessing risks and mitigation activities of their imp act. Implementing these policies requires investment in new technologies and the integration of climate challenges into green sectoral policies at national and local levels.The purpose of this report is to study the state of environmental indicators for Bulgaria and their development dynamics over the last decade. The results reveal the sectors with the strongest influence on the ecological condition of the country an d the directions for its improvement.



  1. Masson-Delmotte, V., P. Zhai, A. Pirani, S. L. Connors, C. Péan, S. Berger, N. Caud, Y. Chen, L.Goldfarb, M. I. Gomis, M. Huang, K. Leitzell, E. Lonnoy, J.B.R. Matthews, T. K. Maycock, T. Waterfield, O. Yelekçi, R. Yu and B. Zhou (eds.), IPCC: Summary for Policymakers.\ In: Climate Change 2021: The Physical Science Basis.Contribution of Working Group I to the Sixth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Cambridge University Press, 2021
  2. Wendling, Z. A., Emerson, J. W., de Sherbinin, A., Esty, D. C., et a. 2020 Environmental Performance Index. New Haven, CT: Yale Center For Environmental Law & Policy., 2020
  3. Bouwman A. F., J. M. Boumans,N. H. Batjes, Emissions of N2O and NO from fertilized fields: Summary of available measurement data,, 2002
  4. HOEGH-GULDBERG al., The human imperative of stabilizing global climate change at 1.5°C, Vol 365, Issue 6459, DOI: 10.1126/science.aaw6974, 2018
  5. Alexandratos, Nikos; Bruinsma, Jelle, World agriculture towards 2030/2050: the 2012 revision, DOI: 10.22004/ag.econ.288998, 2012
  6. Martin, A., Jenkins, M., Kapos, V., Monfreda, C., Loh, J., Myers, N., Norgaard, R., and Randers, J., (2012). Academy of Sciences (PNAS),
  7. National Strategy in the Field of Energy (with Focus on Electric Power Engineering) BAS, Sofia, 2017.
  8. Meadows, D., Meadows, D. and Randers, J., (2014), Limits to Growth: The 30-Year Update, Chelsea Green Publishing Company
  9. Matthews, J., Munday, M., Roberts, A. & Williams, A. (2003). An Index of Sustainable Economic Welfare for Wales, the ERSC Centre for Business Relationships Accountability Sustainability and Society, Cardiff: Cardiff Business School, pp.3-4
  10. Mihova, T., Anguelov, K., (2018), Research on interactions among universities and high-technological enterprises аt qualification of employees, IX National conference with international participation ELECTRONICA, Sofia
  11. Bioeconomy development in EU regions. Mapping of EU Member States’/ regions’ Research and Inno vation plans & Strategies for Smart Specialisation (RIS3) on Bioeconomy. Final Report. February 2017. Framework Contract: 2014.CE.16.BAT Lot 2.
  12. Denmark as growth hub for a sustainable bioeconomy. Statement by The National Bioeconomy Panel. September 2014.
  13. European Commission. 2017. The role of waste-to-energy in the circular economy. Communication from The Commission to the European Parliament, The Council, The European Economic And Social Committee And The Committee Of The Regions Brussels, 26.1.2017 COM (2017) 34 final
  14. European Fat Processors and Renderers Association (EFPRA) Home Page. (accessed July 25, 2018)
  15. Eurostat 2019 a: Structural business statistics (SBS), (19-07-15).
  16. Monastiriotiotis, V and G. Petrakos (2009), Local Sustainable Development and Spatial Cohesion in Post – transition Balkans: in search in developmental model, GreeSE/GreeSE29
  17. Nikolova-Alexieva V., Valeva K., (2019), ―Research on the Development of bio entrepreneurship in Bulgaria economic-based entrepreneurship activity in the sectors of bioeconomy― в XXIII rd International scientific conference; Knowledge in practice, Bansko, 13-15 December
  18. Nikolova-Alexieva V., Valeva K., (2019), Bioeconomics - a strategic sector in the circular economy, in 4TH International Scientific Conference – winter session - ―Industry 4.0‖, Mechanical Scientific And Technical Union - Industry 4.0, Borovets 11-14 December, 2019.
  19. Nikolova-Alexieva V., Valeva K.,(2019) Enhancing the Competitiveness of bio-sector enterprises for stronger bio-economy― , 4TH International Scientific Conference – winter session - ―Industry 4.0‖, Mechanical scientific and technical union - Industry 4.0, Borovets 11-14 December
  20. Peters, G. M.; Rowley, H. V.; Wiedemann, S.; Tucker, R.; Short, M. D.; Schulz, M. Red Meat Production in Australia: Life Cycle Assessment and Comparison with Overseas Studies. Environ. Sci.Technol. 2018,44 (4), 1327−1332.
  21. Lernoud J, Willer H. Organic Agriculture Worldwide: Key results from the FiBL survey on organic agriculture worldwide, Research Intitute of Organic Agriculture (FIBL), Frick, Switzerland, 2019
  22. Fussler, C. & James, P. (1996). Driving Eco-Innovation. London: Pitman Publishing. IES Institute for nvironment and Sustainability. (2009). ILCD supporting tools. Retrieved from
  23. Klemmer U., Lobbe K., ―Environmental Inno vation. In Rennings, K., 2000. Redefining innovation — ecoinnovation research and the contribution from ecological economics.‖ Ecological Economics, 32, 1999 pp. 319-332
  24. Andersen M., ―Eco-innovation towards a taxonomy and a theory,‖ in DRUID Conference Entrepreneurship and Innovation, 2008
  25. European Commission, ―Competitiveness and Innovation Framework Programme‖

Article full text

Download PDF