The composite materials based on polymer and oligomer blends with different thermodynamic compatibility have been developed. It is shown that for polymer and oligomer blends of products formed as result of the thermogasdynamic synthesis of fluorine-containing compounds, the ability of oligomeric matrix to multiply deformation and alternating transfer is the most important. In polymer-polymer systems formed in a melt by various technologies the most important factor is the structure of the boundary layers determining the parameters of the stress-strain and tribological characteristics of the composites. The effect of physical compatibilization during the introduction of nanoscale metal-containing and carbon-containing particles into the blend compositions has been established. This effect promotes the thermodynamic compatibility and resistance to the action of thermal-oxidative medium on composites.