• The geometrical criterions of nanoparticles

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 12 (2018), Issue 12, pg(s) 503-505

    The structure of the bulk crystals allow to determine the habit of the nanocrystales on their base only as a source point. It is impossible to neglect the size, form and influence of surface. The liquids surface relatively quickly passes to equilibrium form when free energy is minimum. Debye’s temperature is rather arbitrary parameter. Its determination is based on some approach. However this parameter is introduced to the reference books and is broadly used in the crystal physics. Proposed strategy allows defining habit maximum size of nanoparticles on the base well known physics representations. The L–value is determined the bounder between sizes where it can be done value description and where it’s necessary to take into account the particle sizes.

  • The symmetry of nanoparticles

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 12 (2018), Issue 11, pg(s) 477-480

    The physical properties of nanoparticles as modifiers are depend on their geometrical characteristics. These objects have 5- and 10-axis symmetry which is forbidden for crystals. The 3×3 matrices-generators of point groups of rotation in crystallographical and crystallophysics basises have as matrix elements 0 and ±1, except groups hexa- and trigonal in H-basis crystals. But these lattices too have 0 and ±1 as matrix elements for matrical representation of point moving in crystallographical basis. For describing the point groups of pentagonal and decagonal symmetries, instead of crystal lattices the so-named general regular lattices (GRL). The two dimensional GRL is known as Penrose’s sets. For 3-d pentagonal sets there are 14 groups of point symmetry, which are not crystallographic because their elements may be golden ratio.

  • Features of the structure of mixtures nanopolymeric composites

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 12 (2018), Issue 11, pg(s) 469-476

    It is investigated features of phase structure of metal-polymeric nanocomposite based on thermoplastic matrices. Effect of realization of reversible phase transition “nanometal – high-molecular metal-containing compound” which determines hardening, wear and thermal-oxidative degradation mechanisms is established.


    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 12 (2018), Issue 8, pg(s) 341-343

    Features of the structure of blends obtained by thermomechanical blending of thermoplastic components with different molecular structure are considered. The possibility of formation of structures with different levels of ordering (from heterophase structure with a pronounced boundary between the components to the macrogomogeneous structure with high compatibility of matrix and modifying components) is shown. Under injection of nanosize particles with different chemical composition into the blends, a synergistic effect of simultaneously increasing the parameters of tensile stress-strain and tribotechnical characteristics of items and its resistance to thermal oxidation is achieved. Nanosize particles in the active state perform the function of a physical compatibilizer, forming a cross-linked structure with physical bonds in the volume of the composite. The engineering nanoblends with increased performance parameters have been developed.



    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 11 (2017), Issue 10, pg(s) 485-489

    This paper describes directions of realization of the multilevel modification principle in materials science and technology of polymer composite materials based on thermoplastics. It is shown that the introduction of nanoscale particles of different structures and production technologies into the composition of the composite makes it possible to transform the structure at various organization levels, which leads to the achievement of a synergistic effect of increasing the parameters of deformation-strength, tribotechnical characteristics and resistance to the action of thermal-oxidative medium. One of the perspective technologies of the nanomodifiers introduction into the composite material is the diffusion treatment of components and products in precursor solutions. Mixture of composite materials with increased parameters of performance characteristics for use in engineering, chemical and mineral resource industries have been developed.


    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 10 (2016), Issue 7, pg(s) 51-52

    Investigated the mechanisms of interfacial interactions in composite materials based on thermoplastic matrices modified with dispersed particles of silicon and carbon-containing compounds with high energy activity. It was found that the laser treatment of particulate and fibrous particles occurs comprehensive modification of the surface layer, which consists in shaping the development of the morphology of the surface layer and increase its energy. For the modification of thermoplastic matrix including high-viscosity (polyamides, PTFE) prospectively the use of dispersed fragments of carbon fiber (CF) fraction 50-150 microns, subjected to the effects of a short pulse laser, having developed the morphology of the surface layer and the presence of defects through thermal degradation. When using this modifier in an amount of 5-30 wt.% for filling PA6, PA66, PTFE provides increased of parameters deformation and strength characteristics due to the increased mechanical component adhesive interaction at the interface of "matrix-filler". An additional effect is realized in the processing of the surface layer of CF fluoride compounds oligomeric or polymer-oligomeric structure. The modified fluorinated hydrocarbon components fragments CF when laser pulse processing are exposed to the active low molecular weight products ablation, so that the surface layers are formed with a high affinity to the matrix polytetrafluoroethylene. The complex method of modifying CF is effective for highly filled fluoro composites containing 25-35 wt.% of carbon fillers due to the decrease in the probability of formation of cluster structures of the filler particles. Dispersed particles silicate (clay, tripoli, talc) and carbon (graphite, carbon black, shungite) when exposed to laser radiation susceptible to degradation with the formation of nanoscale fragments in a moving layer, thus increasing their activity in the processes of the interfacial interaction in the formation of composites based on oligomeric and polymeric matrices.


    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 3 (2017), Issue 3, pg(s) 92-94

    The composite materials based on polymer and oligomer blends with different thermodynamic compatibility have been developed. It is shown that for polymer and oligomer blends of products formed as result of the thermogasdynamic synthesis of fluorine-containing compounds, the ability of oligomeric matrix to multiply deformation and alternating transfer is the most important. In polymer-polymer systems formed in a melt by various technologies the most important factor is the structure of the boundary layers determining the parameters of the stress-strain and tribological characteristics of the composites. The effect of physical compatibilization during the introduction of nanoscale metal-containing and carbon-containing particles into the blend compositions has been established. This effect promotes the thermodynamic compatibility and resistance to the action of thermal-oxidative medium on composites.


    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 2 (2016), Issue 3, pg(s) 10-11

    There were studied mechanisms interfacial interactions in composite systems based on dispersed particles of polymer materials (polyolefins, polyamides, fluorcontaining polymers) and modifiers of various composition and structure in the combination process in the units with intense mechanical action. There were established the effects of formation of products of mechanochemical interaction of active centers of modifiers particles and radical fragments of macromolecules degradation. The obtained results allow changing the technological paradigm of the creation of high-strength and highly filled engineering nanocomposites based on high-molecular matrix.


    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 2 (2016), Issue 3, pg(s) 8-9

    Are investigated mechanisms and kinetics of structural transformations polymeric substrates and of disperse particles fillers and modifiers exposed defocused laser radiation with energy in the range of 1.5 to 6 J. Installed effect of hardening the thermoplastic matrices (polyolefins, polyamides, of polyesters) when exposed to short laser pulses on a film sample thicknesses of 50-200 microns. The methods of structural analysis (IR spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, DTA) showed, that the predominant mechanism of manifestation hardening effect is the formation of nano-sized structures in the film sample volume due to leakage of recrystallization processes. When exposed to laser radiation to disperse and fibrous particles of silicates, graphite, schungite, carbon fibers is implementing a complex effect of increasing the dispersion and the formation of advanced morphology of the surface layer with an increase in the proportion of nano-sized fragments whisker and lamellar habitus. When laser irradiation of fibers fragments formed developed morphology of the surface layer, due to the occurrence of thermal degradation processes that lead to the appearance of cracks and of globular indentations. Spectroscopy method of thermally stimulated currents (TSC – spectroscopy) established the effect of changing the energy state of the surface layers of substrates and particulate modifiers, which are characterized by extreme values of magnitude TSC – currents in the temperature range 193-523 K. The combined effect of energy and morphological factors provides the effect of increasing the activity of modifying components subjected to the laser processing. Changing the energy state of the surface layer of the polymer substrate has a beneficial bactericidal effect, increases the effectiveness of antiseptic treatment of medical devices used in medical practice. Are presented examples of the practical use of the established laws when creating polymer composites for metal-polymer systems for various applications.


    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 1 (2015), Issue 2, pg(s) 13-16

    There were studied features of the structure of composite materials on the basis of recycled thermoplastic (HDPE, LDPE, PP) modified by components of different composition and dispersion. It was established the hardening effect of the matrix of the composite with the introduction of the highly oriented fragments that preserve the structure after the completion of the technological cycle of manufacturing products by injection molding or extrusion. It was proposed the technology of thermo-mechanical combining of thermoplastic components while simultaneous modifying by components of different composition and structure. When modification of fluorinated nanoparticles ablation products is provided the effect of increasing the rate of extrusion and formation of hydrophobized surface layer of products. Nanoscale silicate modifiers (clay, tripoli, metals phosphates and oxides,) contribute to the thermodynamic compatibility of the matrix and the modifier polymer due to formation of a spatial network of physical binds in the volume of the composite. The obtaining technologies for products based on recycled composites that the parameters of deformation strength and tribological characteristics are not inferior to raw materials, but have a significantly lower cost of production.


    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 1 (2015), Issue 2, pg(s) 8-12

    On the basis of modern concepts of condensed matter physics and quantum physics considered the criteria for inclusion ofdispersed particles of different composition, structure, and technological background to nanomodifiers of polymeric, oligomeric and combined matrices. There were proposed an analytical expression for the evaluation of limiting size of the dispersed particles L0, which characterizes the manifestation of a particular energy state – nanostate.There was implemented the analysis of experimental and literature data confirming the adequacy of the calculated value of the size of particles in nanostate obtained using relation L0=230•θD-1/2, where θD – Debye temperature. It is shown that the provision of effective modification of macromolecular matrices necessary and sufficient condition is the presence of dispersed particles of different composition and structure of nanoscale structural fragments of the surface layer, which ensure the implementation of synergies through a combination of energy and mechanical factors in the formation of boundary layers of the optimal structure.


    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 1 (2015), Issue 2, pg(s) 3-7

    There were considered the physical, structural and morphological prerequisites for the realization of the nanostate phenomenon of dispersed particles of condensed matter of different composition, nature and technology for production. It was shown the role of the size factor in the occurrence of the nanostate phenomenon due to the change of the energy parameters of the surface layers of particles that contribute to their effective modifying effect on the high-molecular matrix. Physical models of the formation of a particular energy state of dispersed particles and metallic and non-metallic materials substrates, characterized by the presence of local areas ("charge-mosaic") with a long relaxation time are proposed.It was considered practical application of the nanostate phenomenon when creating high-strength and wear-resistant materials based on thermoplastic matrices (PA6, PTFE, PET), consistent lubricant and lubricating oils, tribological and protective coatings for friction units and metalwares used in mechanical engineering, automotive and mining engineering. It was made the examples of the effective use of developed nanocomposite materials in practice.