Finite element simulation on tensile creep behaviour of underground support liner

  • 1 Mining Engineering Department, Middle East Technical University, Ankara, Turkey


Polymer-based products are widely used as load-carrying components in different structural applications due to the ease of manufacture, installation, and long lifetime properties. In mining and tunnelling industry, fast-setting, thin polymer-based products are in demand as an underground support liner. Researchers have agreed that the time-dependent material properties of underground support liners have significance for short to long term applications. Although some creep tests were performed in literature, there is no available study on the numerical analysis/simulation of the creep behaviour of underground support liners. In this study, viscoelastic mathematical
models developed for two different underground support liners were analyzed in ABAQUS finite element numerical modelling software with a developed subroutine. After the implementation, tensile creep test specimens were modelled to verify the new subroutine. There are two main purposes of the simulation of experiments; Firstly, to verify that the subroutine works in accordance with the actual behaviour of the material, secondly, to obtain realistic creep behaviour results for cases where experiments were not performed. As a result, a good  agreement was obtained between the mathematical model predictions and numerical results for different stress levels. The proposed subroutines may create a basement for future numerical studies.



  1. Villaescusa, E., 2014. Geotechnical design for sublevel open stoping. CRC Press, London. doi:10.1201/b16702-4.
  2. Kuijpers, J.S., Sellers, E.J., Toper, A.Z., Rangasamy, T., Ward, T., Van Rensburg, A.J., Yilmaz, H., Stacey, R., 2004. Required technical specifications and standard testing methodology for thin sprayed linings. SIMRAC Final Report. Research agency: CSIR Division of Mining Technology. Project No: SIM 020206, Report No: 2004- 0404.
  3. Guner, D., & Ozturk, H. (2018). Creep behaviour investigation of a thin spray-on liner. International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences, 108, 58-66.
  4. Guner, D., & Ozturk, H. (2019). Experimental and modelling study on nonlinear time-dependent behaviour of thin spray-on liner. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 84, 306-316.
  5. Tannant, D.D, & Wang, C, (2003), “Thin Tunnel Liners Modelled With Particle Flow Code”. Engineering Computations, Vol.21, pp. 318-341.
  6. Malan, D.F., & Napier, J.A.L.( 2008). Numerıcal Modelling of Tunnel Liner and Fracture Interaction. 6th. International Symposium on Ground Support in Mining and Civil Engineering Construction, SA.
  7. Richardson, J., Mitra, R., & Saydam, S., (2009). Investigation of Thin Spray-On Liners using Numerical Modeling”. ARMA, American Rock Mechanics Association, Asheville.
  8. Dirige, A., &Archibald, J. (2009), Numerical Modeling Simulations of Spray-on Liners Support Potential in Highly Stressed and Rockburst Prone Rock Conditions”. Proceedings of the 3rd CANUS Rock Mechanics Symposium, Toronto.
  9. Nater, P., & Mena-Cabrera, A. (2010). Thin Sprayed Liners - an Approach With Numerical Models. International Society for Rock Mechanics. Eurock 2010.
  10. Guner, D. & Ozturk, H. (2016). Experimental and Numerical Analysis of the Effects of Curing Time on Tensile Mechanical Properties of Thin Spray-on Liners Rock Mech Rock Eng (2016) 49: 3205. doi:10.1007/s00603-016-0997-x.
  11. Guner, D. & Ozturk, H. (2017). Mechanical Property Comparison of Thin Spray-on Liners Under Tension and Compression. 25th International Congress and Exhibition of Tukey (IMCET 2017), Antalya, Turkey
  12. Li, Z., Hussain, F., Mitra, R., & Saydam, S. (2017). A numerical evaluation of using thin spray-on liners for coal mine gas management. Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering, 45, 747-760.
  13. Komurlu, E., & Demir, AD, (2017). A Numerical Modelling Study on Performance of Thin Spray-on (TSL) Liners. 25th International Congress and Exhibition of Tukey (IMCET 2017), Antalya, Turkey, pp. 105-112
  14. Lee, K., Kim, D., Chang, S. H., Choi, S. W., Park, B., & Lee, C. (2018). Numerical approach to assessing the contact characteristics of a polymer-based waterproof membrane. Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology, 79, 242-249.
  15. Daver, F., Kajtaz, M., Brandt, M., & Shanks, R. (2016). Creep and recovery behaviour of polyolefin-rubber nanocomposites developed for additive manufacturing. Polymers, 8(12), 437.

Article full text

Download PDF