The mathematical model of the polymer plasticization in the reciprocating screw injection molding machine is presented. According to the mathematical model, a computer program was developed. Based on the computer program, simulation studies of the injection molding process were conducted. Next, the experimental studies, evaluating the theoretical model from the accuracy and usefulness point of view, were carried out. Important output quantities, such as the temperature and pressure profiles, the power demand by the screw, the torque on the screw and the screw rotation time were measured. The studies were performed on a specially made
research office. The simulation results were compared with the experimental data measured for the most popular polymers and different operating parameters of the injection machine. The experimental studies have indicated the need to introduce some corrections to the mathematical model. Several modifications have been made to the model, related to the methods of stress determining in the polymer layer. Finally, the output characteristics of the plasticization process in the injection molding are now correctly determined by the model with an average error less than 10%.