Injection moulding is a widespread method of polymer processing. The annual, global energy consumption for injection moulding is comparable to the annual energy production of different European countries. The most energy-consuming stage of the injection moulding is the plasticization process, which needs the energy mainly for the rotational and reciprocating screw motion as well as the heating of the barrel. Both issues were examined by changing various parameters of the injection moulding process, measuring the process characteristics and calculating the corresponding values of SEC (specific energy consumption). Various thermoplastic polymers were examined. It was found that the optimal conditions from the energy consumption point of view is low value of rotational velocity of the screw. Changes of back pressure do not affect the energy consumption of the plasticizing system of the injection moulding machine. Furthermore, an increase of the SEC value with increasing barrel temperature was shown. It was ca. 15% for the average barrel temperature rise of 20°C.
Journal section: DOMINANT TECHNOLOGIES IN “INDUSTRY 4.0”
The article discusses the current state of knowledge about the active grooved feed section of an extruder and presents its new constructional solutions. The grooved feed has been known for thirty-five years; there are not so many constructional solutions, and most of them come from the United States and Poland. Unlike the passive grooved feed section, the active grooved feed section has not, as yet, been used in industrial processing machines.
Extrusion is one of the most important processes in polymer processing technology, just next to injection molding. The first extruder was invented and patented in 1879 by Matthew Gray, which used Archimedes screw in its design . Since that time, constantly work on improving the work of extruders was carried out, which are implemented in two different ways, technological or constructional [2, 3, 4]. The constructional method involves both the modification of the screw design and the entire barrels of the plasticizing system. Evidence of the relevance of this issue may be the number of patents describing the classic and unconventional constructions of extruders . The aim of the following work is to conduct a review of the contemporary construction solutions of the plasticizing systems barrels, whose applications were intended to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the extrusion process. One of the most interesting solutions is the kinematic activation of the barrel wall in the metering zone by introducing a rotary sleeve in a plasticizing system whose rotational speed and direction can be freely modified.
Energy sector of the Baikal natural territory in terms of impact assessment on the ecosystem of lake Baikalpg(s) 228-231
The study deal with the functioning of energy objects in the Baikal natural territory and they impact on the ecosystem of Lake Baikal. It is shown that pollutants have a major impact on the atmosphere from where can spread over long distances and leached from the air to the water and soil surfaces. The role of energy sector of the Baikal natural territory in the impact on the lake ecosystem has been determined.
This paper will examine whether information technology solutions can contribute to the work of a road repairer. The aim of the research is to develop an algorithm for identification and volume calculation of the road pits.
The paper presents an overview of three existing methods to identify holes as objects. Recent study uses an ultrasonic sensor to determine the size of a 3D hole; special attention is paid to its noise classification and possibilities for its reduction. The authors have found a way to organize road surface scanning, convert the resulting data into binary code and calculate the volume of the object. Calculations can be made on both a mobile microcontroller-controlled device and a computer after receiving data. A worker, a self-propelled robot or a drone can be used as a sensor carrier.
Study results can be used for further development in the field of transport systems engineering, as well as for mechatronics specialists to develop algorithm realization equipment in a real environment.
Airspace is now one of the most frequently mentioned environments when discussing technologies of autonomous or unmanned vehicles or machines. There is a number of technologies developed to support unmanned flying vehicles (UFV) and so called air drones. The actual influence of such kind of machines on transport industry is crucial. It is also obvious, that many modern military operations involve UFV with built-in AI or remote control. Nevertheless, one of important problems for any flying vehicle (aircraft or drone either) is to plan the most suitable route satisfying all necessary primary and collateral requirements: reach destination, consume minimum fuel or energy, follow the safest areas, avoid adverse circumstances etc. Among the tasks to build the effective route for the flight we find an important problem to cut a relevant area in airspace to perform route search. This research is dedicated to discuss and ground the basics of a reliable approach to solve this problem.
In modern warfare there has been increased use of various weapon systems like tanks, artillery, mortars, infantry armored vehicles, multiple launch rocket system (MLRS). Hostilities often are conducted in densely populated urban areas, where most victims are given by the civilian population. It is the application of systems of detection and reconnaissance sources of sound (the weapons), and also the quick disclosure of their locations. It achieves a “rapid response” of the threats and reduces casualties. Wavelet analysis offers a quick way to process acoustic signals received in the shooting which provides the opportunity for quick reconnaissance and defining sources of sound.
The aim of the paper was to test of the concept of the navigation system for the autonomous robot for sowing and wide row planting. Autonomous work of the robot in the field of traction and agronomic processes is implemented based on data from many sensors (cameras, position sensors, distance sensors, and others). The robot is intended for ecologic cultivation requiring mechanical removal of weeds or in crops with application of selective liquid agrochemicals limited to the minimum. The use of a vision system, based on the map coordinates of the position of the sown seeds, allows for their care on an early stage of plant development. Main sensor system is based on a specialized GPS receiver and inertial navigation providing position information with an accuracy of around 10 mm. To determine the angular acceleration the IMU (Inertial Measurement Unit) is used. Additionally, information from the acceleration sensors and wheel encoders is used for navigation purposes. This system is used to: control the speed of the robot, keep the robot on the designated path, and detect the precise position of the seeds. The exact information of the seeds position is used to build maps of seeds, which will be used as supporting information for precision weeding, and to control the position of and operation of key components. The front camera view is used to increase positioning accuracy of the robot. It will allow corrections of the robot path regarding the rows of plants. The vision system is also used for detection of non-moving objects. A structure of requirements for the SQL database has been developed, which is used to store plant and weed geo-data, as well as store data about plants and weeds, based on images recorded by the vision system.
The rise of Industry 4.0 and of smart factories along with all enabling technologies such as cloud computing, Internet of Things, multi agent systems, cyber physical systems, artificial intelligence, etc. will transform current factory workers to knowledge workers. Hard work and routine tasks will be executed by machines or robots, while tasks requiring experience, intuition, creativity or decisions making based on uncertainty will still reside to humans. This constitutes a huge shift on the required competences. Further, this change is transforming manufacturing to a software intense business, where software development and operation is a core part of the manufacturing process, but as well as of the products being manufactured either as a standalone component or as a part of a larger product or service. The need is prominent, since we need urgently to study the knowledge and competences needed for manufacturing personnel of the near future. In this paper, we present an initial competence model where will outline the knowledge dimensions and skills needed for Industry 4.0. This model can be used to create training proposal individuals or for assessing the knowledge gaps existing in an enterprise. The identified skills are classified as technical, behavioral and contextual.
In this article is exposed one way for creating digital illustrations for commercial purpose. The method combines traditional drawing and calligraphy, 3Ds Max, VRay and Photoshop. The idea of the article is to demonstrate how to build an entire project from the scratch. The purpose of the article is to show how different software for graphic designing with different purpose can be combined together with a traditional art in order to achieve maximum as a result.
This report discusses the using of a free software to determine the aerodynamic coefficients of a developed MAV. The coefficients obtained, as well as the aerodynamic forces and moments, have been investigated for their applicability in the balancing and static stability of this type of aircraft. The results of the work are used to synthesize a suitable autopilot.
MOLD DESIGN AND PRODUCTION BY USING ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING (AM) – PRESENT STATUS AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVESpg(s) 82-85
This paper covers the advanced Additive Manufacturing (AM) techniques applied to injection mold design and production. Its aim is to do a comprehensive analysis on what AM is doing for the recent and future perspectives in the field of mold’s production.
Further analyses are done on the possible use of Rapid Tooling (RT) techniques based on AM technologies. These include plastic mold inserts made using high strength polymer resins and metal-based technologies for direct tooling work.
Moreover, the work also reviews conformal cooling channel design based on laser sintering AM technologies and its effect in improving mold cooling efficiency to reduce cycle times, which is an important issue in the injection molding process.
Finally, a brief techno-economical analysis is presented, as well as a comparison between the two different types of molds – the conventional ones, and molds produced by rapid tooling. The conclusions leads toward future usage of RT and AM in the mold design and