The subject of the paper, titled ‘Multistage Gear Project Of The Electrical Car SGR2016 for the Silesian Greenpower organization’, is an analysis of a chain vibrations in drive gear of SGR 2016 bolide. The exact moment of gear switch presents the greatest threat of a stability loss. Tests have been conducted in 2 stages. The first stage was the determining of derailleur setting. The adjusted component was a mechanism responsible for increasing the drag movement of derailleur cage. Adjustment of this element caused change in vibration characteristics in different system parts. That element was adjusted so oscillations were minimized. The second stage of studies was pinpointing the correct rotational speed, at which gears should be changed, using previously defined derailleur adjustment. Speed, at which the gear switch takes place, was chosen so the vibrations are lowest possible. Oscillation amplitude was recorded using high speed camera, and the data was analyzed using a dedicated High Speed AVI software. Speed measurement had been done using magnetic field sensor. All studies have been conducted on inertial system, simulating real life race conditions. Comparing all results, optimal driving parameters in terms of drive gear work stability, have been defined.
Trans Motauto World
Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 1
Table of Contents
TRANSPORT TECHNICS. INVESTIGATION OF ELEMENTS. RELIABILITY
Gears are one of the most important machine elements in the industry. They are using many areas such as; automotive, energy, aviation, etc. Gears are exposed to higher loads day by day due to the increase in power and speed on the machines. Therefore, the stress values which are occur on the gear root is also increase. These stresses cause to damage on the teeth root. Thus the stress values have to be decrease to design optimum gear body. In this study, the effects of root radius on the gear bending stress are evaluated by using finite element method. At first, gears with standard root radius is investigated both DIN 3990 and finite element method. After the validation of finite element model, the root radius of the gear is taken as parameter. Gears with different root radiuses are analyzed by using finite element method. It is seen that with the increasement of gear tooth radiuses, the root stress is considerably decreased. With increasement of root radiuses the maximum principal stress reduced nearly 20%.
THE IMPACT OF THE CONSTRUCTIVE PARAMETERS OF THE BUMPER OVER THE CONSEQUENCES DERIVING FROM THE PROCESS OF COLLISIONpg(s) 11-14
With the analysis and synthesis of the process of crashing, the impact of every factor is estimated in the generation and the development of the accident, and conclusions are drawn regarding the impact of particular elements from the vehicle over the consequences from the accident.
The bumper system is a component of the vehicle intended to reduce the effects of the bumps on the front and the rear of the vehicle, its components and the shell. The cost of the damage and the protection regarding the bumper are the main criteria used to evaluate the efficiency of the impact of the bumper system, especially at low impact velocity.
This paper is representing the results of a deducted analysis and an investigation of the influence of the bumper system alongside its constructive parameters to the extent of the damage in low impact velocity. The investigation is primarily relating to statistical analysis of average damage, overall weighted average damage and variations in the amount of damage.
Vehicle components made of rubber usually exhibit large deformations. Cyclic finite deformations may induce increasing temperature in hyperelastic materials. This case – where changes in deformation and in temperature occur simultaneously – is called coupled thermomechanical problem. Both the mechanical and thermal processes have their own governing equations, that is why special techniques are needed for the computation. A special technique will be presented for solving coupled problems, this is operator split method. The goal of this paper is to show how to solve the coupled thermomechanical problem by the principle of virtual power and the principle of virtual temperature, and how to apply them together.
POSSIBILITIES FOR CONTROL OF SEMI-ACTIVE SHOCK ABSORBERS IN ORDER TO REDUCE CASES OF SUSPENSION JOUNCES WHEN BRAKINGpg(s) 19-20
In this work a model of a truck when braking is created. The model takes into account the deflections in the suspension and vibrations of the sprung mass. The differential equations of the model are worked out. Numerical experiments are performed and some results are given. It is shown that if the shock absorber damping ratio is increased when vehicle braking, it is possible to reduce the pitch angle and the jounces in the suspension.
TRANSPORT. SAFETY AND ECOLOGY. LOGISTICS AND MANAGEMENT
Choosing the right warehouse location is very important question which should be considered with great care, because it has a direct influence on the operating cost. For solving this problem many methods are on disposal. According to the way of determination of new warehouse location these methods can be divided in two groups’: qualitative methods and quantitative methods. Quantitative methods are often used in practice from the reason greater objectivity and possibility to analyse obtained results. Most often used methods are: gravity method, load distance method, Weber problem and many others. For calculating of distance in the load distance method two approaches are in use rectilinear distance and Euclidean distance. Neither one of these two approaches credibly describes transport routes because they not taken into consideration any physical obstacles that might occur between potential warehouse locations. With the goal to determine the influence of distance calculation on the result of the load distance method, choice analysis of optimal location of warehouse for retail stores, shops in the urban area was performed and presented.
Ergonomics plays an important role in shaping safe and hygienic working conditions. Its main purpose is to increase the productivity of work in a way to not cause adverse health effects for the employee. In the article the profession of excavator operator, taking into account the scope of activities performed the qualifications and skills necessary to perform this profession were described. In the further part of the work, hazards occurring in the working environment of the excavator operator were identified. Then, selected ergonomic factors influencing the comfort of earthmoving machine operator were analyzed, in particular those that could cause excessive strain on the musculoskeletal system. Authors of the work focused primarily on discussing the construction and equipment of the excavator cabin as those elements that fundamentally determine the safe, ergonomic and comfortable work. The measurable effect of the work is to propose preventive works reducing the negative impact of these factors on the human body.
MEASUEMENT OF ELECTROSAFETY PARAMETER WHEN PROVIDING THE ELECTRIC POWERS ON BOARD THE SHIP FROM COASTpg(s) 30-32
The world market offers the greater nomenclature of the facilities for measuring parameters of electrosafety, as there is always a demand on them. The majorities of facilities do not guarantee accuracy or in general cannot value the measured parameter unless they do execute requirements and conditions of their operation. In particular, measurement of the resistance grounding device (GD), at resistivity of the soil more than 500 Ohm.m and in large concourse of the underground communication (seaports) requires the high qualification of the operator and large number of measurements. For instance, in the article unpinned way of measurements GD is considered based on measurement of phase voltages of network with deafgrounded of neutrality in connection with the investigation sidebar of the grounding device contour. The Offered way of the determination of the resistance GD, in basic range (0.1-10 Ohm) allows to value the garbled resistance GD with necessary accuracy.
The present article analyses the development and impact of the container security initiatives on maritime supply chains. Security issues concerning container liner shipping require complex approach and application of integrated IT systems on national and international levels. During the last two decades various initiatives have been applied to ensure for higher level of security of container transportation. The background and aim of these initiatives are studied in detail and their effect is evaluated. The results show that container transportation still has vulnerable nodes and the application scope of security initiatives is to be widened despite the high costs.
RESEARCH OF INTELLIGENT TRANSPORT SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT OF CONVOY OF UNMANNED VEHICLES WITH THE LEAD PILOT VEHICLE FOR WORK IN THE NORTH OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION IN THE ARCTIC AND ANTARCTICpg(s) 37-40
In the Russian Federation the problem of creating a transport system to control movement of the column of unmanned vehicles to enhance the efficiency and safety of passenger transportation in remote regions of the North, the Arctic and Antarctic is solved for the first time. The study was first developed mathematical models and algorithms for control and interaction of intelligent transport systems of traffic control columns, control system movement of the lead pilot vehicle of a column of unmanned vehicles, the motion control system driven unmanned vehicle convoys of unmanned vehicles.
VEHICLE ENGINES. APPLICATION OF FUELS TYPES. EFFICIENCY
AIR COOLED DIRECT INJECTION DIESEL ENGINE MAIN OPERATING PARAMETERS ANALYSIS DURING THE CHANGE IN ROTATIONAL SPEEDpg(s) 41-44
Four-stroke air cooled, direct injection diesel engine Torpedo BT4L912 during rotational speed variation was investigated in this paper. By using the measurement results obtained at engine brake was calculated several main operating parameters in each engine rotational speed. Rotational speed was varied from 1000 rpm to 2300 rpm. Calculated engine operating parameters are engine torque, effective power, engine brake mean effective pressure, specific effective fuel consumption and volume fuel consumption per engine process. The highest obtained engine torque amounts 338.8 Nm and the highest engine effective power amounts 71.76 kW. Specific effective fuel consumption has the lowest value of 197.42 g/kWh at engine rotational speed of 1800 rpm. Regarding several calculated engine operating parameters, optimal operating point of the analyzed engine is at 1800 rpm.
In connection with the observed dynamism of changes on the energy market regarding generation of energy from sources other than coal, more attention was paid to the use of "clean", low-emission technologies. Bearing in mind the need to search new, alternative energy sources, the aim of the study was to investigate and analyze the properties of grain biomass, such as rice and corn, as a fuel. To achieve the goal, the research problem has been formulated: how the fragmentation degree and the type of biomass affects such energy properties as heating value and heat of combustion. To resolve the problem, the properties of white rice, black rice, red rice and corn before and after grinding were analysed. The results show that white rice has the biggest value of heat of combustion before grinding, red rice – the lowest. White rice has the biggest heating value for whole grain, red rice – the lowest. The research allows to state that grinding operations result in increasing energetic properties of biomass. It can be also assumed that biomass is a good substitute of fossil fuel.
This paper describes the results of numerical simulations of a vehicle engine with dual mass flywheel coupled with dynamometer. The differential equations of the model are given. The mass moments of inertia and the torsional stiffness are taking into account. Numerical simulations are carried out. Natural frequencies of the system are determinate. Bode diagrams of the system are shown and analysed. Recommendations to reduce vibration by using an additional flexible coupling are given.