• Speciation of C5-C11 hydrocarbons generated by the HCCI gasoline exhaust gas engine

    pg(s) 132-133

    HCCI , SI HYDROARBONE SPECIATION GDIA qualitative and quantitative analysis of toxic but currently non-regulated hydrocarbon chemical species ranging from C5 – C11 was studded which is generated from a modern gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC – MS). The GDI engine has been operated under different engine speeds and different engine modes (SI and HCCI modes). HCCI has the ability to operate on lean combustion which leads to the reduction in engine pumping losses, and fuel consumption However, HCCI mode has a high levels of unburnt HCs which leads to present heavier species such as Toluene, which is presented in higher concentrations under stoichiometric HCCI engine operation mode, while species such as , benzene, are mainly found in the engine exhaust during SI engine operation, Engine speeds has high impact on engine tail pipe emissions for both engine modes.. increasing engine speed leads to higher concentration in
    Benzene species while toluene was decreased and presented in higher concentration at low engine speed for both engine modes.

  • 1D simulation-based development of a safety concept for the investigation of a high-pressure gas-diesel injector on a single-cylinder research engine

    pg(s) 128-131

    1D simulation has significantly supported the process of developing a diesel ignited high-pressure gas direct injection combustion concept, thus facilitating promising investigations at the SCE. It has been applied to a variety of tasks such as designing the media supply system, pre-optimizing engine operating parameters and developing the safety concept discussed in this paper. Application depends on two simulation models in particular: one validated MCE model and one SCE model enhanced in the course of the concept design phase. Since the MCE model can reliably reproduce the behavior of a full engine with single-stage turbocharging, it played a critical role in determining the boundary conditions for both the 3D-CFD simulation and the simulations with the SCE model. The SCE model, on the other hand, includes all components relevant for the test bed and thus permits both a reliable design of the gas path and the development of a safety concept, which is of remarkable importance for high-pressure gas applications. With regard to the safety concept, this paper presents and discusses the difficulties in detecting injector malfunction and different detection strategies.

  • Identification of the minor chemical elements in the exhaust emissions from diesel engine vehicles

    pg(s) 124-127

    In this research we investigate the minor chemical elements contain in the particulate matter (PM) exhaust emissions, generated from in – use light duty Diesel combustion engine vehicles. For this purpose we apply high resolution optical emission spectroscopy technique, for precise spectrochemical analysis of Diesel particulate matter (DPM). By means of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy analytical method we analyse PM from different on road Diesel engine vehicles. DPM were obtained from miscellaneous inuse Diesel engine passenger vehicles of diverse types and models from major brand car producers in Europe.

  • Electronic throttle development for experimental hybridelectric vehicle

    pg(s) 122-123

    This paper presents a design proposal for an electronic throttle control system intended for the experimental light hybridelectric vehicle. This vehicle was made in the scope of ongoing student project of developing and creating a light hybrid-electric vehicle as a platform for educational and research work. In the present case, ATV/quad-vehicle engine is used, where the throttle command of IC engine was originally realized using mechanical linkages and cable. In order to fully exploit hybrid drive potentials, control of both IC engine and electric hub motors had to be exerted by using single accelerator pedal. For this purpose, the original IC engine control system had to be replaced by an electric motor actuator that uses control signal from accelerator pedal used for electric motors control. The prototype of mechanism that converts rotation of electric motor actuator output shaft into linear displacement of the needle valve was also designed and produced applying 3D printing technique.

  • EFFECT OF FUEL ADDITIVES ON DIESEL ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    pg(s) 195-203

    The performance and combustion emissions of diesel engine can be modified using various chemical fuel additives. Fuel additives consist of a variety of chemical compounds. It contains chemical elements such as: hydrocarbons, C11-C14, C10-C13, n-alkanes, isoalkanes, cyclics aromatics, cycloalkane, 2-ethylhexyl nitrates. Analysis has been conducted on diesel fuel and diesel fuel and additives blends. Fuel additives No.1, No.2 and No.3 consisting of these chemical elements have been analysed. The obtained results show, that the amounts of carbon monoxide emissions at low engine loads (IMEP = 0.32 MPa) increases up to 35% compared to pure diesel fuel. While using additives, the hydrocarbons emissions at low engine loads almost doubles compared to pure diesel fuel. The break specific fuel consumption with the engine powered by pure diesel fuel was lowest in all modes. The highest increase on in cylinder pressure 11% was only determined with the fuel additive No.3 at the maximum load of 1.12 MPa at the speed of 1800 rpm.

  • IMPROVEMENT OF WHEELED TRACTOR’S REGULATOR IN DIESEL ENGINE

    pg(s) 192-194

    On wheeled tractors it is expedient to erect the universal regulators, which can be set on singlemode regulation or multimode one, on the basic of serial multimode regulator 4 UTNM the key diagram, construction and manufacture design of research sample of universal multimode – singlemode regulator were worked out.
    The work is directed at raising of fuel economy and lowering of harmful rejections of wheeled tractor when performing transport work by using universal regulator and optimal partial high-speed characteristics under one-mode regulation. Worked out mathematical model of the system “operator-tractor train-road” for investigating of influence of character of proceeding of partial high-speed characteristics of diesel engine on expenditure of fuel and harmful rejections of wheeled tractor.
    Investigations, conducted on this model, showed the advantages of one-mode regulation in the cases of work of diesel engine at variable modes. Inclination of partial high-speed characteristics under one-mode regulation essentially didn’t influence on economical and ecological indices of wheeled tractor. By experimental investigations is confirmed the adequacy of mathematical model and checked the efficiency of experimental universal regulator.

  • EFFECTS OF PROPELLANT PROPERTIES ON INTERNAL BALLISTIC PERFORMANCE RESULTS OF SOLID ROCKET MOTORS

    pg(s) 188-191

    The aim of this research is to examine the effects of propellant properties such as: combustion temperature, propellant density, characteristic velocity, reference burning rate and burning rate pressure exponent on internal ballistic performance of solid rocket motors. A zero dimensional internal ballistic solver is developed and internal ballistic performance analyses of solid rocket motors having slotted cross section are performed. Thus, different internal ballistic results such as maximum combustion pressure, burning time, specific impulse and total impulse are determined. Finally, variation of these response variables according to solid propellant properties are determined constructing different response surfaces. Graphical results represented in this work makes easier to select solid propellants for a certain kind of geometrical configuration.

  • RESEARCH OF USING THE ALTERNATIVE FUELS FOR IMPROVING THE INDICATORS OF THE TRACTOR DIESEL WORK

    pg(s) 146-150

    The urgency of the issue under consideration is stipulated by large-scale international research and is confirmed by the Russian Federation Government Decree No. 1-P of 08.01.2009 “Main Directions of State Policy in the Sphere of Energy Efficiency Improvement on the Basis of Using Renewable Energy Sources for the Period to 2020” and the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from July 7, 2011 № 899 on priority directions of development of science, technology and technics in the Russian Federation.
    According to the analytical agency “AUTOSTAT”, as of 2017 there are 3.7. million of trucks in the Russian Federation, of which the ecological standards “Euro-4” (and above) correspond only 14%, and annually are used more than 20 million tons for freight transport, which in the amount of processing oil to diesel gas oil is more than 70 million tons of diesel gas oil . From the above, it can be concluded that in order to solve the fuel issue and preserve the environment, it is necessary to study the performance of the diesel engine using diesel composite fuel and transfer of transport to alternative fuels.
    As a raw material for the production of alternative fuels is attractive biomass, such as oilseeds and waste from processing plants.
    As a result of the growing demand for ricinic oil by industry, it is necessary to study its application as a component for the production of diesel composite fuel.
    However, the viscosity of ricinic oil is higher than that of diesel gas oil, so it can only be used as an additive to low-viscosity components. As a result of the addition of diesel fuel and bioethanol to ricinic oil, with preliminary preparation, decreases viscosity and are improved low-temperature properties. This mixture can be suitable for use on transport-technological machines, the point of view of qualitative spraying in areas with a moderate climate.
    Based on the thermal calculation of the engine by the methods of Prokopenko R.M., Khorosh A.I., Bashirova R.M., are determined the parameters of the working cycle of the engine D-240 and are presented below the dependences on the concentrations of the components.
    The article compares the obtained results with the indicators of traditional diesel gas oil.

  • THE EFFECT OF N-BUTANOL ADDITIONS TO DIESEL FUEL ON ENGINE PERFORMANCE AND EXHAUST EMISSIONS

    pg(s) 142-145

    The article deals with the effects of butanol-diesel fuel blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged, CRDI 1154HP (85 kW) diesel engine. Load characteristics were taken when running with normal diesel fuel and n-butanol-diesel fuel blends DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4 possessing 1wt%, 2wt%, 3wt%, and 4wt% of fuel-oxygen at speeds of 1800 and 2500 rpm. The auto-ignition delay increased by 15.5%, burn angle MBF 50 and the combustion ended 7.6% and 6.5% earlier in the cycle, bsfc and engine efficiency were 2.8% and 1.9% higher when using fuel blend DB4 than the respective values of 17.40, 20.90 and 61.20 CADs, 234.4 g/kWh and 0.361 a fully loaded (100%) straight diesel develops at speed of 2500 rpm. The NOx, CO, THC emissions, and smoke decreased by 5.1%, 29.5%, 3.7 times, and 48.1% against the respective values of 1020 ppm, 563 ppm, 260 ppm, and 12.9% a straight diesel develops under these test conditions.

  • LIQUID FUEL TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND INJECTION RATE INFLUENCE ON INJECTOR NOZZLE REYNOLDS NUMBER AND CONTRACTION COEFFICIENT

    pg(s) 138-141

    The influences of liquid fuel temperature, pressure and injection rate on fuel contraction coefficient and Reynolds number during a fuel injection were investigated in this paper. Nozzle geometry parameters remained constant during the whole numerical analysis. Calculations were performed with a standard diesel fuel D2. Increase in liquid fuel temperature cause increase in fuel contraction coefficient. Fuel temperature increase resulted in a slight increase in contraction coefficient at low fuel pressures, while at high fuel pressures increase in fuel temperature causes significant increase in fuel contraction coefficient. Increase of fuel pressure resulted in a decrease in liquid fuel contraction coefficient, for every fuel injection rate and for every fuel temperature. Reynolds number increases with an increase in fuel temperature and also with an increase in fuel injection rate. The main goal of presented analysis is to be usable not only for one fuel injector and its nozzles, but for a large number of the fuel injectors and for many liquid fuels.

  • REDUCING THE LEVEL OF THERMOELASTIC STRESSES IN THE PISTON OF A VEHICLE DIESEL ENGINE BY AFFECTING THE ENGINE CYCLE

    pg(s) 99-101

    Given are the results of a comparative design analysis of the operating cycle and thermal stressed state of a piston in diesel engine 2F10,5/12 under rated power conditions. To reduce the thermoelastic stresses in the piston, the paper suggests using the modern method of managing the operating cycle – homogeneous mixing and combustion. Such an operating cycle reduces the maximum local temperature in the combustion chamber and the temperature gradients, thereby reducing the thermal load on the piston.

  • RESEARCHING BIOFUELS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL LABORATORY

    pg(s) 95-98

    The aim of the article is to show how to encourage students to deepen their knowledge, creativity and their enthusiasm for research. In this way we can also promote the popularization of science and technology as well as the identification of students talented in specific research areas. This article presents an example of writing a research assignment undertaken by students in the final year of primary school (class 9, i.e. age 14-15).We live in the age of diminishing supplies of fossil fuels and consequently a growing interest in the renewable energy sources, including biofuels. Through research assignment, we wanted our students to learn more about the characteristics
    of biofuels which we haven’t discussed in detail in class. Biofuel is a solid, liquid or gaseous fuel, obtained from a relatively recently deceased biological substance. For the production of biofuels, we use various plants and substances of plant origin, which are known under the term “biomass”. In addition to looking for information in literature and electronic resources, we conducted experiments in which we measured how many degrees a particular quantity of water heats up by the burning of various fuels, and the amount of residue left after burning. The biofuels we used were: pellets, briquettes, olive pulp, cherry stones, biodiesel, ethanol and sawdust.
    We established that different types of fuel emit, when burnt, different amounts of heat. Water heated up the most when burning ethanol, while it heated up the least when using biodiesel. Experiments showed that different fuels burn for different amounts of time, leaving a residue which depends on the type of fuel