Pre-harvest sprouting is the premature germination of cereal seeds so that the embryo starts growing while still on the head in the field. Grain germination before the harvest is a serious problem in many wheat-growing areas of the world. The grain and flour quality parameters impacted by pre-harvest sprouting are strongly related with climatic variables and soil water condition. This process especially occurs when wet conditions delay harvest. Spouted seed is usually inadequate for flour productions. Products made of sprouted flour are generally unacceptable to producers and consumers. Moreover, it is also often inadequate as feed because microbiological contamination. However, it seems that such kind of waste grain can be utilized for energetic purposes. The aim of the present work was to study the grinding process of sprouted wheat. The heat of combustion of sprouted grain and sound grains was also determined. Three-day germinated kernels of three wheat varieties were used for investigation. After germination the wheat kernels were dried at 40°C by using an air dryer to obtain the same moisture as that of the grain before sprouting (14.0% w.b.). The sound kernels were used as a control sample. The sprouted and the sound samples of grain were ground by using the knife mill MG-200. The results showed that the sprouting of wheat had a significant influence on the grinding process, both on the particle size distribution and grinding energy requirements. The sprouting caused a decrease in the average particle size and value of specific grinding energy in all cultivars. The values of specific grinding energy ranged average from 21.6 kJ·kg-1 to 23.6 for kJ·kg-1 fore sprouted and sound kernels, respectively. The heat of combustion of sprouted grain was only slightly lower value of this parameter obtained for sound grain and ranged from 15.9 to 16.5 MJ/kg.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 4
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Soil and water resources as important objects and prerequisites for the design of agricultural machines and the formation of professional competencies of an agricultural engineerpg(s) 120-125
The scientific, technical and pedagogical bases of studying issues of soil and water protection by future specialists in agro-engineering in of higher education institutions are presented. Some concepts and categories that are used in the educational process for students to study agricultural land reclamation machinery and equipment are analyzed. Depending on the purpose, tasks, techniques of technological processes, the types of land reclamation measures are distinguished. The example of calculation of working bodies of earthmoving reclamation machines is given. According to the developed innovative studying technologies, students first study and analyze the state of agricultural production, identify the disadvantages of technological processes, the level of technical support, and then, using mathematical apparatus, methods of engineering calculations design and construct a reclamation machine. The methodological features of calculating the power balance of the earth-moving reclamation machine, which includes the power required to: isolate the material to be processed, taking into account its deformation, are theoretically described; the movement of the material being treated, that is, providing it with kinetic energy; lifting of the processed material; overcoming the friction resistance of the treated material against the surface of the working body and guide surfaces; overcoming the full resistance of the movement of the machine, taking into account the slope of the surface of the movement to the horizon; overcoming the propulsion of the propulsion; acceleration of the machine to the calculated speed of movement (overcoming the forces of inertia); drive conveyors and accessories. The developed procedure of laboratory and practical work includes the study of the methods and features of the calculation of balance capacity components of reclamation machines, taking into account such indicators as the type of soil, its density, thickness of layer, productivity, kinematics of the working body, the required lifting height, etc. The lecturer must draw up a general report on the theoretical and practical part of the laboratory and practical work in accordance with his task and protect it from the faculty of the department. The developed pedagogical technology of cross training emphasizes that soil and water resources are important objects and prerequisites for the development of agricultural machines and the formation of design competencies of agricultural engineers.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
Soil moisture and soil density variation during plant growing season by implementation of mineral and organic fertilizationpg(s) 126-128
Soil water retention and soil compaction are very important factors in the plant production and environment protection. The field investigations of the variation of soil moisture and soil density of Luvisol loamy sand in arable layer and in hard pen during sugar beet growing season in conventional tillage with implementation of mineral and organic fertilization were realised. In the growing season the soil moisture extremely fluctuates in the range from 4 to 18%. At the same time, it causes fluctuations of soil density, which totally decreases in time. Starting from June one can observe that the natural changes of the soil moisture cause contrary changes of soil density. Mostly, the soil moisture and soil density variation during growing season are similar in ruts and at the field besides the ruts. Generally, the organic fertilization increases the soil retention to about 4 % in arable layer and profitable enhance the loosened action of water.
The EU is currently addressing the problem of depletion of phosphate, which is a source of phosphorus. Due to the usage of modern digestate treatment enabling macroelements recycling, the digestate can be a suitable substitute for anorganic fertilizers. This experiment is focused on improving the soil properties due to digestate application in sugar beet growing region. Applicated digestate comes from a biogas plant of agricultural cooperative Velešovice. The obtained results show better physical properties (soil structure, stability of soil aggregates) and differences in pH values, Cox (%) and nutrient content between variants.
Assisted phytostabilization of a heavy metals contaminated soil using mineral amendments and L. perennepg(s) 132-134
Pressures exerted on the soil ecosystem due to its exposure to Zn evoke a real and aggravating effect on the quality of life. Greenhouse pot experiments were conducted to study the effects of mineral amendments (zeolite and bentonite) on selected physico-chemical properties of soil, L. perenne growth, Zn accumulation in plant and soil. The contents of Zn in the plants and soil were determined using the method of spectrophotometry. Zn contents in the tested parts of L. perenne differed significantly in the case of applying amendments to the soil, as well as increasing concentrations of Zn. The greatest average above-ground biomass was observed when zeolite were amended into the soil. Bentonite also caused significant increases in Zn concentrations in the roots. Bentonite and zeolite were shown to be the most effective and decreased the average Zn contents in soil.
The study deals with preparation of carbon/SiO2 based natural composite material by slow pyrolysis of rice husks at 480° C. The phase composition, microstructure and morphology of the solid pyrolysis residue were investigated by XRD, FTIR spectrometry, thermal analysis, Hg-porosimetry, B.E.T. specific surface area and SEM-EDS. The sorption capacity of the pyrolyzed rice husks (PRH) upon adsorption of oil and oil products spills was determined. The obtained results revealed that PRH possess high sorption ability toward to gasoline, diesel, motor oil, light and heavy crude oil, in the range of 3.7 to 9.2 kg.kg-1. The adsorbent is characterized with hydrophobicity and buy-effect 90% more 10 days. PRH were investigated also as material for deep adsorption removal of thiophene from model fuel under batch mode. It was found that adsorption of 92% of the aromatic sulfur compound from the model fuel was achieved.
In the present work a mobile complex for monitoring natural waters for the detection of toxic substances has been proposed. The conditions for the detection and quantification of doubly charged cations of copper, nickel, cobalt and zinc on fibrous and cross-linked cation exchangers and polyampholytes, as well as fluoride, nitrate and nitrite ions on anion exchangers, and sodium oleate and sodium dodecyl sulfate on activated carbons, shungite and silicas were selected. The concentration of ions in the eluate was determined by ionselective electrodes. An approbation of the proposed method for the detection and quantification of the ions was carried out on model aqueous mixtures containing various metal cations, anionic surfactants, inorganic and organic compounds. The mobile complex can be used to monitor the state of water objects without taking liquid samples to the laboratory and the concentration of toxic compounds, as well as to assess the effectiveness of the purification measures employed.
Nature-based solutions for soil and water quality protection – experiences from the nordic-baltic regionpg(s) 142-145
World ecosystems are confronted with multiple challenges related to the global change drivers, namely, population growth, climate change, land use change, urbanization, invasive species, and interactions between these. Intensified land management practices implemented with the primary aim to increase the land productivity, may have severe adverse effects on soil and water quality. In the Nordic-Baltic region, both agriculture and forestry have high economic importance and long traditions, and currently intensive management is applied in both these sectors. Even though regulatory framework for soil and water protection exists, the management practices have to be extended beyond simple compliance with the regulations in order to secure holistic approach to the land management. Therefore, several collaboration projects with Nordic-Baltic partnership in forestry and agriculture sectors have been implemented during recent years to test nature-based solutions for soil and water protection.
The global problem is that despite even the best efforts to eat a healthy balanced diet, most of our food sources no longer contain all necessary micronutrients, fulvic, humic and bio-active organic acids, minerals and other phytonutrients our bodies need to stay healthy because of soil degradation due to intensive industrial agriculture practics. Degraded soils cause poor nutrition value plants and poor nutrition value food cause human physical and mental degeneration. One of the ways to solve the problem is humic and fulvic acid preparations. The field experiment was conducted in 2016-2017 at the Rumokai Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry on a Bathihypogleyi-Calc(ar)ic Luvisol (LVk-gld-w) with predominant silt loam on clay loam. Mineral Ful and Ferbanat L were tested in the experiment. Mineral Ful is a high bioactive fulvic complex with 33 organic acids, and over 70 micronutrients that is free of chemicals. Mineral Ful produced water extraction method of leonardite. Ferbanat L contain humic and fulvic acids, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, micro and macro elements and beneficial soil microorganism. The preparation obtained by the result of the transformations of organic waste by used of the worms. Test preparations had the influence on humus content in the soil. Mineral Ful and Ferbanat L increased sugar beets root yield from 1.33 to 7.11 t ha-1. Cereal grain yield increased 2.6-1.,0 %.
Soil salinity is one of the main limiting factors for the plant growth and productivity. Response of three garden pea cultivars (Mira, Zornitsa and Ran 1) to salt stress in in vitro and in vivo conditions was studied. The in vitro stress was induced by adding of 0 (nontreated control), 50, 100 and 200 mM NaCI in culture medium. After two weeks the germination and seedling emergence rate were not significantly affected by 50 mM NaCl. In culture medium containing 200 mM NaCl only 13.3 – 43.3% of the seeds developed to the plants. The data indicated that increasing NaCl level the shoot and root lengths, and plant fresh weight were significantly reduced. In in vivo condition, such clear differences between the tested NaCl concentrations were not observed. Nevertheless, the applied salt stress more strongly affected the shoot fresh weight and root length than stem length. Among the three tested genotypes cultivar Zornitsa was the most tolerant one, proved in both in vitro and in vivo experiments.
The deficit of the irrigation water requires irrigation technologies of more efficient water use. For cucumbers the most suitable is the drip irrigation. For establish the appropriate irrigation schedule of cucumbers under the soil and climate conditions in the village of Chelopechene, near Sofia city, research was conducted with drip irrigation adopting varying irrigation schedules – from fully meeting the daily crops water requirements cucumbers to reduced depths with 20% and 40%. Have been established irrigation schedule, irrigation water productivity and yields of in plastic unheated greenhouses of the Sofia plant.