Table of Contents

  • TRANSPORT TECHNICS. INVESTIGATION OF ELEMENTS. RELIABILITY

    • Estimation of vehicle speed based on video analysis

      pg(s) 39-42

      The use of video cameras for automatic traffic management, as well as video surveillance cameras, has made it possible to visually observe traffic accidents, i.e. the manner and movement of the parties involved in the accident at the moment and immediately before it occurred. On the basis of a video of a vehicle passing through a section that can be photogrammetrically rectified and transformed into an orthogonal view, with knowledge of the dimensions of characteristic formations that are usually rectangular in shape, such as pedestrian crossings, etc., and with knowledge of the frequency of the video recordings, it is possible, using appropriate software, to determine the speed of the object under study. In this paper, the reliability of the speeds determined by rectification using the AnalyzerPro software has been compared with the target speeds of the vehicle defined by the speed limiter, measured by a handheld radar and a GPS device installed in the vehicle.

    • Experience of applying the acoustic emission method for monitoring systems

      pg(s) 43-45

      An important aspect in organizing acoustic emission monitoring is the analysis of recorded data and selecting useful information. Despite noise suppression using frequency methods, its quantity in the recorded information can reach 99% because the process of degradation during operation typically progresses slowly, whereas the presence of acoustic noise is an inherent attribute of the technological process.
      Noise suppression after data recording is carried out within the framework of the monitoring system’s software, although filtering algorithms may be specific to each application.

    • Geometric design and efficiency of ship ventilation flow: analysis of sudden expansion in laminar flow by numerical simulation with ansys

      pg(s) 46-49

      This scientific report focuses on investigating the influence of geometric design on ship ventilation flow efficiency through numerical simulation with ANSYS. Many sources on the subject state that in a ship’s ventilation system, the flowing fluid encounters various devices and fixtures such as valves, fans, and bends that can cause sudden expansions or contractions of the flow. These geometric factors cause energy loss, which can be of importance to the efficiency of the ship’s ventilation system, especially in the complex conditions of power generation. Such energy losses are considered significant in these industries and are the subject of serious design and optimization of flow systems. Using engineering simulations, this report investigates steady laminar flow through a pipe with sudden expansion in order to understand and predict the energy losses resulting from the expansion. The practical example of application can be the analysis of the ventilation system of a ship, where such geometric designs can affect the efficiency of the ventilation and therefore the performance and safety of the crew and passengers. Such research is essential to improve the manufacturing and operational processes of ships and to ensure their optimal working conditions.

    • Statistical estimates of the probability of fail-safe functioning of freight wagons in the interval between repairs

      pg(s) 50-52

      During exploitation wagons must fully implement the transportation process safely. Wagons spend their own technical resources in the process of exploitation, and therefore they need to be restored. During the process of moving, accumulated defects in the moving part, axle boxes, brake equipment and in other knots of wagons, and the number of failures in wagons depend on the reliability of the construction and on the quantity of kilometers that the wagons have run.

  • TRANSPORT. SAFETY AND ECOLOGY. LOGISTICS AND MANAGEMENT

    • Development of a theoretical calculation algorithm for forecasting the number of tourists for the regional tourism business

      pg(s) 53-55

      Forecasting the number of tourists by month can help the region’s tourism business prepare for the next season, in particular, in the future, in the correct selection of capacity of hotels, appropriate inventory, number of workers serving the facilities, capital investments, investments, volume and other economic indicators of tourist infrastructure facilities, as well as their implementation dates and raising financial rewards from them. The simplest method of forecasting is the method of direct extrapolation, which is based on the study of the dynamics of change in economic events during a particular time span and the transfer of patterns revealed to the future.

    • Road Safety – a New Look at the Factors That Influence Road Traumatism

      pg(s) 56-59

      The creation of a safe system is crucial to a more stable urban environment and the improvement of society’s well-being. The primary components for successfully reducing the number of traffic accidents and road traumatism in general are the capacity of state institutions and the management of processes that involve road safety. Despite the massive amount of funds invested in designing safe roads, as well as restrictive elements along the road infrastructure and especially control, the share of drivers who view speeding as natural is growing. The purpose of the paper is to identify the invisible factors that push drivers to drive with excessive speed within urbanized environments. Emphasis is put on the significance of the personality characteristics, competence and behavior of drivers. The inferences from this study can help determine the direction of development for road safety in Bulgaria.

    • Port infrastructure as an element of the logistics supply chain

      pg(s) 60-62

      Ports are what initiate the social and economic growth of a region, not only enabling trade but also serving as a center for social activities. Nowadays, most ports (especially seaports) are well equipped with specialized machinery such as forklifts and gantry cranes to facilitate regular cargo transactions. Ports are also a major source of employment as a large number of workers are employed there.

    • Issues and concerns in the maritime education regarding cyber risk management

      pg(s) 63-65

      In accordance with Resolution MSC.428(98) “Maritime Cyber Risk Management in Safety Management Systems” the companies must implement the issues to their Safety Management Systems no later than the first annual verification of the company’s Document of Compliance after 01 January 2021. Some of the biggest companies and associations from the industry have published their own Guidelines on Cyber Security Onboard Ships. However, the question on ship’s cyber security is still not implemented in the syllabuses. As per International Ship and Port Facility Security Code (ISPS Code), part B, 8.3.5 the ship’s security assessment should include radio and telecommunication systems, including computer systems and networks. This necessitates finding answers to the following questions: whether the Ship’s Security Plan has to be revised to include the appropriate measures to protect both equipment and communication links or Cyber security plan itself will be enough to cover the issues; whether the Cyber Security Officer (CSO) will be the person who will tackle the problem or the companies have to hire a well-qualified additional person; whether such a person has to be a mariner or IT specialist. The aim of this article is research regarding implementation of Maritime Cyber Risk Management requirements to the vessel’s Ship Security Plan (SSP) and qualification of the person responsible for companies’ fleet cyber security.

  • VEHICLE ENGINES. APPLICATION OF FUELS TYPES. EFFICIENCY

    • Simulation-based Investigations of Different Combustion Concepts for Hydrogen-fuelled Large Gas Engines

      pg(s) 66-69

      The development of a combustion concept for hydrogen-fuelled high-speed large engines requires a suitable development methodology, including the interaction between 1D and 3D simulation as well as experimental investigations on research engines. The main subject of this paper is the development of one-dimensional single cylinder and multi cylinder engine models used for turbo matching and to gain a better understanding of combustion anomalies. The latter are especially affected by the mixture formation process which is investigated by means of 3D CFD simulations for port fuel injection and direct injection engine operation. Boundary conditions are generated based on experimental investigations on a single cylinder research engine with displacement of about 6 liters. The paper concludes with an assessment of the benefits and limitations of different engine configurations.

    • Extracted Handal seed oil ( Cittrullus Seeds) used as biodiesel fuel in internal combustion engines

      pg(s) 70-71

      Most important of fuel economy research and vehicle industry today is to find a unique fuel with high calorific value and low tail pipe emissions . in this research a good effort was spent to find a solution for automotive industry by presenting a new fuel which was extracted from Citrullus and presented as handle seeds oil to be used as bio fuel in internal combustion engine, which is very important issue for automotive industry . The importance of extracting Handel oil has led to investigate the characteristics of chemical and physical properties of new fuel, such as density, specific gravity, kinematic viscosity, flash point, pour point, cloud point, which will help of controlling the composition of biofuel and improve the fuel quality which can be used in internal combustion engines . The two important processes were used for biodiesel production are Esterification and Transesterification.