The paper presents the research into the specific aspects of hitching agricultural machines and implements to wide span tractors (vehicles). According to the results of the performed investigations, the redistribution of the normal reaction forces on the tractor’s front and rear wheels depends to a significant extent not only on the inclination of the hitch links of the wide span tractor (vehicle), but also on such design parameters as the distance from the linkage to the centre of resistance and the carrier wheel of the agricultural machine or implement. In order to exclude in practical terms completely the effect of the machines’ running gear compacting the soil in the yielding (agronomic) zones of the field, it is recommended to implement on the wide span tractors (vehicles) the controlling devices that allow adjusting the normal vertical load on the agricultural machine or implement’s carrying wheels. Such controlling devices can operate on the principle of the known weight transfer traction boosters used in conventional tractors.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 4
Table of Contents
Methodology of evaluation of environmental and technological properties of the mobile energy machinepg(s) 114-116
The method of estimation of technological properties of a mobile power tool is presented in the work taking into account the index of its ecological properties. The results of the expert survey are presented to determine the importance of individual indicators in the evaluation of the generalized indicator of the environmental and technological properties of the mobile energy means. Increasing the informativeness of the methodology for evaluating the technological properties of a mobile power tool by taking into account the generalized index of its environmental properties. The structure of the index of environmental properties of depends on the assignment of the estimated energy source and the purpose of the problem to be solved. In our opinion, with a comparative assessment of energy resources as a unit one can adopt the following indicators of their environmental properties. The obtained result shows that today it is more relevant to assess the technogenic impact of a mobile energy facility on the environment than the cost of its implementation unit of work. And with this conclusion, one can not disagree, since the neglect of the impact on the environment in the near future can nullify the economic profit from the production of agricultural products. The evaluation of the importance of individual indicators for a generalized indicator of the ecological properties of a mobile power tool, according to the results of a survey of experts, showed that the most impact is the index of soil consolidation, then mechanical destruction of soil, composition of exhaust gases, pollution of operating fluids, noise, vibration and least impact is a layout diagram of the power tool. The analysis of these indicators allows us to determine which structural-technological or regime parameters of the energy source and to what extent influence the general indicator of its environmental properties. And the more deeply this analysis will be, the most accurate and successful will be proposed constructive-technological or regime measures to improve them.
Site-specific crop management practices, known as precision farming, requires information about detailed spatial distribution of soil physico-chemical properties related to the yield productivity. Traditional mapping of soil properties in form of soil sampling is inefficient for assessment of high level of spatial variability due to the high costs. For this reason, a study was conducted within the research projects NAZV QJ1610289 and TACR TH02030133 to evaluate the digital soil mapping techniques, including proximal sensing methods in the form of on-the-go measurement of soil electrical conductivity, for mapping of agronomical relevant soil properties.The experimental work was carried out on the selected fields of Rostenice a.s. farm enterprise, located in the South Moravia region of Czech Republic. Total area of 476 ha within eight fields was measured from 2013 to 2016 by using CMD-1 instrument (GF Instruments, Czech Republic) mounted on the plastic sledges. This device measures the electrical conductivity by the principle of electromagnetic induction (EMI) with 0.98 m dipole center distance and effective depth of measurement of 1.5 m (vertical mode) or 0.75 m (horizontal). Soil properties were obtained by soil sampling in irregular grid with the density of 1 sample per 3 ha. Soil samples were taken from the depth of 30 cm and analyzed for soil texture (percentage of clay, silt and sand particles), content of available nutrients (P, K, Mg, Ca), cation exchange capacity (CEC), soil organic matter content (SOM) and wilting point (WP). The results showed different level of spatial variability among the observed fields. The correlation analysis proved differences in main sensitivity of EMI to the soil properties, mainly the percentage of clay particles smaller than 0.002 mm (r = 0.598). The correlation between EMI and nutrients content in soil and pH value was significant only for few fields. These outcomes showed, that rather than predictor of soil properties could be on-the-go measurement of soil EC used for identification of main zones within the fields at high spatial level.
The main physical soil properties are considered highly important for soil fertility. Measuring only 4 indicators taken from the soil samples and by using physical equations can determine valuable results for the soil physical properties. To facilitate the analysis a develop software could help.
Actuality of the problem of water depuration of the dnieper according to the theory of social welfarepg(s) 127-130
In this article we wish to evaluate efficiency of use of Dnieper cascade hydropower plants on the basis of common approaches to environmental management. We evaluate the efficiency of use the flooded areas of the hydropower station in agriculture. Dnieper reservoirs ranking on the degree of energy risk (the possibility of man-made tsunami generation) was made. There are some water depuration problem mentioned and ways to solve problem of water depuration in Dnieper river.
The aim of this research was to identify the impact of soil microelements on sulphur absorption in the spring wheat. The field experiment was conducted in 2011-2015 at the Rumokai Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry on a Bathihypogleyi-Calc(ar)ic Luvisol (LVk-gld-w) with predominant silt loam on clay loam. During the years the research has shown that the sulphur content in leaves and straw was positively influenced by these soil microelements: manganese (correlation coefficients of 0.973**, 0.98** and 0.959**, respectively), molybdenum (correlation coefficients of 0.977**, 0.955** and 0.929**, respectively) and zinc (correlation coefficients of 0.794**, 0.847**, 0.840**, respectively). Larger boron quantity in the soil reduced the sulphur content in the leaves of wheat (correlation coefficients -0.739**, -0.771**, -0.781**). The impact of soil microelements on sulphur content in the grains of spring wheat was not identified in this research. The sulphur content in the grains was strongly influenced by precipitation in June and July months.
Road effects on vegetation composition and soil properties in Gol-E-Gohar region (Kerman province, Iran)pg(s) 135-137
Construction of the road in the saline area can alter plant communities and diversity. To determine the road effect on plant community composition and diversity in the saline environment around Gol-E-Gohar region (Kerman province, Iran), we conducted a study along roads of Sirjan- Gol-E-Gohar Iron ore and in nearby non-road (i.e. natural) areas in the rangelands of Kaviz Kouh, Sirjan. In addition to plant richness, diversity and composition of plant communities along this roads, we evaluated physiochemical changes in soil of roadside and non-road areas. Floristic data and soil samples were collected along the roadside of Sirajn – Gol-E-Gohar and nearby Kaviz
Kouh . To evaluate plant communities at each site, 30 1 m × 1 m quadrats were placed at 10-m intervals along roads and 30 quadrats were arranged randomly in non-road areas. To determine the difference in plant community composition between roadside and non-road areas, we measured species richness and diversity in each site by Shanon index. Plant community (species richness, diversity) and soil physicochemical properties (pH, salinity, ESP, SAR, Lime, Gypsum and Texture) were compared between roadside and non-road areas by using t-tests. Results showed species richness and diversity in roadside areas was significantly higher than in non-road areas and higher Shannon index indicated that roadside can support more species composition. The plant communities in roadside areas had lower percentages of Chenopodiaceae family and had the higher percentage of Asteraceae, Poaceae and Brassicaceae family in plant composition. Compared to non-road areas, activities associated with roads significantly decreased, bulk density and salinity and increased soil pH and sand. According to results road Construction in the saline area of Gol-E-Gohar can improve portion non Halophyte species in plant composition and alter soil properties just along the roadside.
The objective of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of wastewater treatment stages used to treat wastewater from the textile industry in relevance to irrigation water standards. Results showed that primary and secondary treatment stages that are applied at the textile factory are not enough to meet the standards and that tertiary treatment is required. Two different processes a destructive removal process and a physicochemcal process has been applied. The Fenton process was selected among the advanced oxidation processes, aiming to destroy organic compounds remaining after the activated sludge treatment. The Fenton process was capable in removing about 65% of the COD left after the biological treatment, and the adsorption process on the other hand removed about 50% of the COD left after the biological treatment. More than 95% and 40% of Pt-Co colour unit has been removed by both the Fenton or adsorption process, respectively. The electrical conductivity values were dropped to about 2300 μS.cm-1 after adsorption process only and to about 180 μS.cm-1 after adsorption and nano-filtration and 56 μS.cm-1 after adsorption and reverse osmosis combined processes. The electrical conductivity values were increased after the Fenton process due to iron addition etc. during the oxidation process, but decreased to about 250 μS.cm-1 after Fenton and nano-filtration and 48 μS.cm-1 after Fenton and reverse osmosis combined processes. Laboratory studies showed that advanced oxidation methods combined with membrane technology are appropriate methods to achieve the required standards.
Protection of soils and water resources as an important factor in forming preparation to the project activity of future agroengineers in institutions of higher educationpg(s) 141-145
Here are presented the results of scientific researches on the study of the bases of protection of soils and water resources by future agroengineering specialists in higher education institutions. In the educational process of agroengineering training, it is important to develop a motivational and cognitive criterion of preparing the future specialists for the project activity on the basis of fundamental knowledge of the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials such as soil, water, fertilizers, pesticides, plants, shrubs, trees, as well as other additional products and agricultural waste, etc., for the purpose of carrying out the necessary environmental measures that will ensure the optimization of the parameters of technological processes, machines and structures which are being developed, constructed and projected. Innovative pedagogical technology of teaching is developed according to the method of gradually increasing the amount of educational material, which comes as a result from previously learned and mastered material. It is recommended that about 20% of the training program for agroengineering to be directed by obtaining general and special environmental competencies. The acquired special professional skills of agroengineers will ensure the development of project activity on the basis of preservation and multiplication of natural resources.