The possibilities of designing complex geoinformation model of land use that can provide systematization and accumulation of spatial and attributive data have been shown in the research. As a result of the research, models were developed, which allow make spatial and temporal analysis for solve the problem of optimizing the rational use and protection of land.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 67 (2021), Issue 3
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
The purpose of this study is to indicate the competitive side of the Bulgarian rural areas and municipalities until 2021 and in the long run and in parallel to derive their real competitive advantages within the EU after the pandemic of COV19.
Development in the educational process and research and production activity of modern technologies and technical means of field irrigationpg(s) 85-88
The main condition for the effective use of existing reclamation systems in Ukraine is to increase the productivity of reclaimed lands along with improving their ecological condition. This is emphasized in a number of state documents, namely: Presidentia l Decrees, Resolutions of the Verkhovna Rada, Laws of Ukraine. One of the main reasons for the weak dynamics of the revival of the domes tic reclamation complex is the lack of qualified management and technological staff in the infrastructure that provides reclamation agriculture. Therefore, in the educational process these issues are given more and more attention. Reclamation agriculture is considered b y scientists as a complex technology for sustainable development of production in the agricultural sector of the economy. There is a systematic approach to the development of modern technologies and technical means of irrigation for the sustainable development of agricultural production, obtaining quality products, preserving the fertility of lands, fauna and flora that inhabit it with important conceptual tasks of the educational process and research and production activities. Current strategic issues include: the formation of water policy in Ukraine in view of the availability of water resources and the development of adaptation measures in the context of climate change; development of conceptual bases of restoration and development of irrigation and drainage in Ukraine. And also – water resources of Ukraine and modern methods of research of aquatic ecosystems; scientific bases of formation of sustainable bioenergy agroecosystems; system of laboratory diagnostics of water-physical properties of soils; scientific and methodological bases of organization and conduct of ecological and reclamation monitoring; water and ecological risks of transformation of reclaimed lands and ways of their minimization; information technologies in scientific research in the field of agricultural reclamation, etc. Important issues in the development of modern technologies and technical means of irrigation also include: conceptual principles of irrigation management; features of designing irrigation systems; method of setting watering dates – the basis of irrigation regimes; use of the method “Penman-Monteith” for irrigation management; irrigation management based on phytomonitoring; use of remote sensing data for irrigation control; Irrigation management information system “Irrigation online”; operation of irrigation systems; technologies of repair and restoration works on hydraulic structures of irrigation systems, etc.
We aim to develop a GIS to provide agricultural crop monitoring based on heterogeneous data. The GIS integrates multi-source data (space, air-born and ground-based data, meteorological, plant and soil agrochemical data and other data) as well as up-to-date research on crop modelling to support decision making in the management of crop status. Various geospatial input data are taken a view of as a source of information for crop monitoring system. The structure of the GIS, the components and their relations of crop m onitoring system based on remote sensing data are described in this paper.
The specificity of agricultural production implies several months of intensive use of the majority of equipment and a longstorage period. Checking the quality of storage of agricultural machinery, controlling all operations, is economically impractical. It is necessary to select the main (key) operations from the whole list of operations, ie. those that provide a reliable assessment of the quality of storage of machinery.
The proposed methodology makes it possible to streamline the assessment of the quality of storage of machinery in agriculture, choosing the main operations, without losing information from the fact that the operations that contain a smal l amount of information are not controlled.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
Irrigated agriculture with a world average of 70% withdrawal is the largest fresh water user among all- consumptions and is even higher than 80% in some regions such as semi-arid Konya plain of Turkey. It is impossible to make economic crop production in such environments without irrigation especially for summer crops. Over water abstractions from the groundwater reservoir is inevitable for meeting whole current crop water requirements so this situation may result serious environmental problems such as formation of sinkholes in some places. Following necessary precautions can be taken into considerations for sustainable usages of current water supp lies in water shortage ecosystems like Konya plain of Turkey; 1- Crop pattern should be redesigned in accordance of safely available water supplies, 2- Implementing deficit irrigation program. In that regard, up to 25% deficit irrigation can be suggested for some crops, 3-Developing and widely planting drought resistant cultivars, 4- Improving irrigation areas of practicing pressurized irrigation technologies, 5- Replacement of open channels water delivery systems to the pipe networks, 6- Farmers should be trained about correct agro-water management at farm level with rich visual documents, and 7- Rain-fed farming system could be done for some crops.
The research was performed in 2019-2020 LAMMC at Rumokai Experimental Station of the Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry. The soil was calcaric luvisol, the granulometric composition was a silt loam on clay Winter wheat, after resumption of vegetation fertilized KAS-32 and Leader 24-6. Nitrogen active substance: 60 + 60 + 30. In I and II fertilizations, these liquid fertilizers were used in combination with a urease inhibitor. Mineral nitrogen in the soil was investigated twice: during the graing milk stage of wheat and after harvest. In the grain milk stage in 2019 the urease inhibitor increased mineral nitrogen by 25,8-30.0%. 2020 the effect of a urease inhibitor on the mineral nitrogen content of the soil has not been found. After the harvest in 2019 in the fields where nitrogen fertilization with urease inhibitor was applied in the 0-30 cm layer of nitrate nitrogen was significantly lower than in the control fields. The effect of the urease inhibitor on winter wheat grain yield was not found in the study years
Analysis of climatic variations and the ability of organic farming systems to adapt to climate change in the Northern Western Lowlands – Shkodra area in Albaniapg(s) 100-105
The climatic performance of different ecological areas is determinant for agricultural production and its sustainability. The agriculture is closely related to climatic conditions as climate variability and climate change generate significant ef fects on agriculture. Analysis of climatic behavior of different ecological zones, are important to identify climate variations, but also phenomena related to climate change. The study of climate variations and the phenomena of climate change are important for agricultural activity, in order to adapt agricultural systems, implement mitigation strategies and adaptation to them. Organic farming systems offer the best solution in this regard. The nortthern western lowlands of Albania (Shkodra), is an area with significant agricultural activity and highly diversified, with a great potential for the implementation of organic farming systems. The analysis of the climatic variability of this area and the phenomena of climate change, will contribute to the orientation of agricultural activity towards organic systems in order to better adapt them to climatic variations and increase the sustainability of production.
Assessment of vegetation establishment on different tailings depot at an iron ore-mining site of Gol-e-Gohar, Sirjan, Iran, three years after depotpg(s) 106-108
Nowadays, the ecological restoration of mining tailings has become one of the urgent tasks for mine managers and environmental engineers all over the world. The present paper aims to highlight how the reaction of different iron ore tailin gs to the natural revegetation process. For this purpose, three tailing forms were selected in Gol-e- Gohar mining region, Sirjan city, Kerman province, Iran. These types of mineral tailing are dry tailings depots, wet tailings, and overburden and three years passed after their depot . These three Iron ore tailing forms are the main elements of iron exploitation. For vegetation assessment, using 2m2 plots in each different tailing depot, plant species were recorded. All plant data was transferred to R software. Finally, 45 plant species belong to 18 genera were recorded in the adjacent un-mine site as a control area. To evaluate the diversity of vegetation composition, the Shannon – Wiener index was performed and plant diversity was obtained for each tailing. According to the results, the Overburden vegetation with an index of 1.49 has the highest diversity after the control area (1.95) and supports a larger number of plant species (21 species). Wet tailings and un-stabilized dry tailings have the least plant diversity (0.00), while mulch-stabilized dry tailings support a larger number of plant species (Four species and 0.96 Shannon index). The results show that to restore the vegetation of different tailings, local raw materials and overburden should be u sed due to their nutrients and strong seed bank.
Influence of the irrigation regime on the yields of tomatoes and green beans in open areas, with sprinkler irrigationpg(s) 109-110
The aim of the study was to establish the influence of the irrigation regime on the yields of tomatoes and green beans, irrigated by sprinkling in open areas.
In order to achieve the set goal on a leached cinnamon forest soil in the area of the Sofia irrigation system (experimental field Chelopechene (IHM) now ISSAPP “N. Pushkarov”) a field experiment was carried out with tomatoes of Balkan variety and green bean variety “N ikos” , grown at varying degrees of satisfaction of their water needs. The maximum evapotranspiration was determined by compensatory lysimeters,as in options 3 and 4 it was reduced by 20 and 40%, and in option 1 it was increased by 20%. compared to the version with 100% ETM.
Two of the years in which the field experiments were conducted in terms of the amount of precipitation are very dry with a security of 88.7% and 86.7%, and one year is an average with a security of 51.0%. The high temperatures during these years, combined with the lack of rainfall have predetermined the need for irrigation of vegetable crops.
According to the amount of precipitation during the vegetation period of tomatoes, on average for the study period 8 irrigations with irrigation rate of 373 mm were realized in variant (120% ETM), and in green beans for the same variant 6 irrigations with irrigation norm 300 were realized. mm.
The highest total and additional yield is obtained with irrigation with 120% ETM in both crops 7800 kg / dka. (tomatoes) and ETM 240 kg / (green beans) on average for the study period.
It was found that the reduction of the irrigation rate leads to a corresponding reduction, but not in proportion to the reduction of the possible maximum yield. In all cases, the reduction in yield is less than the reduction in the irrigation rate for both crops.
Silica gels are one of the most widely used adsorbents. The best view of the properties of silicas as catalytic supports, adsorbents and other applications give the adsorption-texture parameters and especially the specific surface area. Hydrated silicon dioxide is amorphous (SiO2.nH2O),a reactive compound with various contains. Due to the serious practical interest of the determination of the specific surface area of materials many methods are developed and have found application. The study evaluates the impact of the surface and surface modification on the possibility of an express method for determination of specific surface areas of silica gels.
Soil properties and hydrological regimes of flooded and non-flooded terrains create different conditions for soil microbial activity. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiological properties of two profiles of Alluvial-meadow soil, situated on flooded and non-flooded terrace of the Maritsa River and to relate them to some soil physical properties. The main groups of soil microorganisms and the enzyme activity (β-glucosidase and phosphatase) of the soil were determined. It was found that soil characteristics and vegetation cover cause differences in microbiological properties. The soil profile from the first flooded river terrace of the Maritsa River was characterized by the largest amount of cellulolytic microorganisms. The heterotrophic microorganisms, mineral nitrogen – utilizing bacteria, microscopic fungi and actinomycetes prevailed in the soil profile on non-flooded terrace. Higher enzyme activity was also observed in this profile.