Table of Contents

  • THEORETICAL FOUNDATIONS OF SECURITY

    • Ensuring the ornithological safety of aircraft flights in conditions of deep uncertainty

      pg(s) 25-28

      Analysed the influence of the threat of an aircraft collision with birds as the most important factor in flight safety (bird strike problem). An analytical review of aviation accidents with birds for the period 2010-2022 was carried out. The problem of ensuring ornithological flight safety considered as decision-making under conditions of uncertainty problem. Existing approaches to assessing the level of ornithological danger in aviation and decision-making are discussed. A scenario approach to reducing the risk of bird strike danger as a task of decisions making in conditions of uncertainty is proposed

  • NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

    • Selection, education and training of personnel for nuclear power plants

      pg(s) 29-32

      This report identifies the main objectives and responsibilities of the operating organization for the selection, qualification and training of personnel for new and existing nuclear power plants to establish and maintain a high level of competence of personnel and to ensure safe operation of the nuclear power plant. The publication can also be used as a recommendation for the recruitment, training and qualification of personnel for nuclear installations other than nuclear power plants.

    • Enhancing international cooperation: bulgaria’s role in the united nations counterterrorism initiatives

      pg(s) 33-35

      The United Nations Office of Counter-Terrorism (UNOCT) spearheads a unified approach across the UN to prevent and counter terrorism and violent extremism globally. Despite the emergence of new challenges, including the misuse of new technologies by terrorist groups, the UNOCT has amplified its efforts, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. The focus remains on promoting multilateral cooperation, with the UN Counter-Terrorism Centre (UNCCT) playing a pivotal role in fostering international cooperation against terrorism. This paper delves into Bulgaria’s contributions and role in these initiatives, emphasizing its alignment with the Global Counter-Terrorism Strategy.

    • Smart solutions for street lighting – safety at public places

      pg(s) 36-39

      The importance of artificial lighting in our daily lives is growing, and street lighting has become a major focus over time. The creation of street lighting was motivated by the need to increase visual and property security and public safety. Current developments in metropolitan environments foreshadow the ‘smart cities’ of the future. The basic concept is that CCTV cameras, traffic lights and street lighting all have ‘smart functions’. Municipalities will be able to adapt to the needs of their inhabitants, thus increasing safety, comfort and energy efficiency. Given the adaptability of smart street lighting to the built environment, artificial intelligence is an essential element of smart cities, even in the systems already in place. Extensive sensor networks will facilitate the collection of environmental data by AI. In addition, unauthorised access to information available through IoT systems poses a serious threat. A critical point is the monitoring and protection of surveillance systems that are vital to the operation of smart systems.

    • Shortage of water resources and cyber – attack are two greatest challenges to contemporary global stability and security

      pg(s) 40-43

      In response to these global threats, it is essential that nations work together to develop coordinated approaches to ensure global security. This requires building trust, sharing information, and collaborating to develop effective solutions that address the root causes of these threats. One important step in ensuring global security is to focus on the prevention of crises before they occur. This can be achieved by investing in early warning systems, improving communication and cooperation between nations, and addressing the underlying causes of conflict and instability. Another key factor in ensuring global security is to promote sustainable development that prioritizes environmental protection, social justice, and economic progress. This can help to prevent resource scarcity and social inequality, which are often key drivers of conflict and insecurity. In addition, it is important to recognize the central role of technology in shaping global security. While technology can create new threats, it can also be harnessed to develop innovative solutions that promote global security. This includes investing in cybersecurity, developing new technologies to address environmental challenges, and promoting access to education and information to help people around the world build resilience and respond effectively to emerging threats. Global security is a complex and multifaceted issue that requires a coordinated and collaborative approach from nations around the world. By working together to prevent crises, promote sustainable development, and harness the power of technology, we can build a more secure and resilient world for generations to come.

    • The OSCE’s commitment to counter-terrorism: implications for Bulgaria

      pg(s) 44-45

      The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is dedicated to fostering peace, security, and stability in its member states. Counter-terrorism remains one of its top priorities, with a focus on a comprehensive and collaborative approach. This paper explores the OSCE’s counter-terrorism strategies and their implications for Bulgaria, a participating state. It delves into the collaborative efforts, initiatives, and programs that Bulgaria engages in within the OSCE framework to combat terrorism.

    • EU-third countries cooperation in managing irregular migration

      pg(s) 46-48

      The Arab Spring and the armed conflicts that followed in the MENA region led to unprecedented mixed migrant flows towards the EU. As a result, various measures to cope with irregular migration have been proposed and implemented both at the national and regional levels. This paper tries to analyse those of them that regard the relations between the EU and third countries bordering it. Special attention is paid to the agreements that involve the provision of financial assistance to third countries in return for stemming the flows of migrants. We argue that such a practice is not only controversial per se, but it does not lead to significant success in tackling irregular migration, as it has been already observed on several occasions. We therefore make some recommendations aimed at better addressing the issue of mixed
      migration management at the EU level.

    • Comparison of the Kazakhstan and the Uzbekistan counter-terrorism and counterradicalization strategies

      pg(s) 49-52

      This article compares the measures of two states, Kazakhstan, and Uzbekistan, competing for the position of regional leader. Elimination of radicalization from the lowest levels of the state is a natural concern of authoritarian governments. Mindful of the threat that religious extremism poses to the stability of authoritarian regimes, they condemn terrorism in all its forms and support the international community’s efforts to fight (Islamist) terrorism together. To ensure stability and national security, the governments of both countries have adopted comprehensive national strategies and action plans to counter radicalization and terrorism. Their common feature is the focus on preventive measures in local communities. However, while Kazakhstan concentrates on addressing the root causes of extremism, a strong emphasis on repressive measures can be identified within the Uzbek strategies. The article examines the limits of cooperation between the leading Central Asian countries as declared in the current legislative acts, highlights how the positions of Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan differ and diverge, and the potential to mitigate the risks associated with extremism in Central Asia by strengthening regional cooperation and understanding.

  • INFORMATION SECURITY

    • IT security awareness among SMEs

      pg(s) 53-56

      Small and medium-sized enterprises in the European Union are also vulnerable to ransomware attacks. There is currently no clear indicator of this proportion. The rate of ransomware attacks depends on a number of factors, such as the cybersecurity situation in a given country, the size and sector of SMEs, IT security measures and IT security awareness.
      Based on our own study, the most important thing is to encourage SMEs to improve IT security, to develop policies and disaster recovery plans that define IT security measures, and to train employees, i.e. training and security awareness are key issues in detecting and avoiding various attacks. Our targeted survey of SMEs on this topic shows that in the current changing environment, SMEs need much more training and support, regardless of their specialism or sector of operation. They need meaningful and actionable training and support that will enable them to develop IT security strategies that are best suited to their business volumes..

    • IoT related security issues and black-box testing experiences in a smart lighting system

      pg(s) 61-64

      Automating and delegating daily tasks is a growing trend. Digital devices and the Internet of Things have boosted this development. This has transformed machine-to-machine (M2M) communication, industrial production, and control solutions as well as smart homes and consumer devices. IoT infrastructure and device networking require scalable, secure, efficient, resilient, and widely supported application layer communication protocols. It is vital to note that IoT infrastructure development prioritizes service implementation and functionality. However, IT security vulnerabilities and system reinforcement are typically neglected. Our present research focuses on a black-box vulnerability evaluation during smart street lighting system development. The goal is to raise awareness of the importance of safety-conscious growth.

  • TECHNICAL FACILITIES FOR ENSURING SECURITY