Friction stir welding of dissimilar materials based on aluminum alloys

    Innovations, Vol. 10 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 76-78

    The paper focuses on the application of friction stir welding (FSW) technology for welding of unequal materials based on aluminum alloys. Joints were made from AW 5083 and AW 6082 materials using FSW technology at different weld speed values. The joints were analyzed metallographically, the hardness of the materials was tested across the cross section of the joint and the strength of the joint was tested by destructive static tensile test. At the lowest weld speed, the materials were not perfectly mixed, there was a macroscopically visible gap at the joint location, which was reflected in the lack of joint strength. At the medium and highest weld speed values, a joint with mechanical properties comparable to those of the base material was formed. Metallographically, the bond between the materials was free of any internal defects.


    Obliteration of surface defects in 3D printing of metals by reactive electro spark surface modification

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 4, pg(s) 126-130

    In this work the possibilities of reducing the roughness and defects of surfaces obtained by 3D printing with selective laser melting (SLM), via reactive electrospark surface modification (ESD) with low-melting AlSi alloys has been shown. The influence of the energy parameters of the ESD process on the roughness, microstructure, microhardness and performance characteristics of the coatings has been studied. Surfaces with new phases and ultrafine crystal-amorphous structure with particle sizes from micro to nano level, with new relief, with thickness up to 15 μm and microhardness up to 11 GPa were obtained, as the initial SLM roughness from Ra = 8-11μm is reduced to Ra=3-5 μm. Possibilities for control of the characteristics of the coatings and purposeful synthesis of new phases by changing the parameters of the spark discharge have been established. The parameters of the ESD process, which provide simultaneous reduction of SLM surface roughness, removal and erasure of the defects and targeted reactive synthesis of new phases with high performance properties and wear resistance, are defined and optimized.


    Investigation of Heat-Treated Steels Using the Magnetic Noise Method

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 4, pg(s) 138-141

    This paper presents the results of an investigation conducted on samples of high-quality heat-treated carbon steel using the magnetic noise method. The objective of the work was to find the proper informative parameters for identifying the obtained s tructures with different hardness. To this end, samples were prepared using quenching and tempering heat treatment at different temperatures , from 150°C to 500°C. After microstructural analysis and hardness measurements, the samples were investigated using the magnetic noise method. The signals were visualized and analyzed using a digital oscilloscope and the Multi Instrument 3.8 software program. The RMS informative parameters and the registration time of the magnetic noise signals were used to identify the obtained microstructures with different characteristics and hardness.


    Numerical analysis of metallographic preparation effect on the hardness of titanium alloy

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 66-69

    Titanium alloys due to their good properties are increasingly used in biomedicine. However, in order to improve certain properties, titanium-based alloys with new chemical compositions are designed. In order to be characterized in a satisfactory manner, they must first be adequately prepared. In this paper the two most influential parameters were varied: grinding time and force, while the speed of rotation of the grinding wheel was constant. After grinding with the highest gradation of grind paper, the samples were observed under a light microscope to determine the condition of the surface. Then their hardness was determined by the Vickers method with different indenter loads. After that, the samples were polished under the same conditions, and their hardness was determined again. The obtained hardness values were numerically analyzed and the corresponding functional dependences of the measured hardness on the grinding parameters (time and force) and on the indentation force were determined.


    Influence of heat treatment on metallographic and mechanical properties of ductile iron

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 1, pg(s) 38-40

    Due to the mechanical properties (toughness, elongation, tensile strength) that characterize ductile iron, its application in foundry technology is becoming more pronounced every day. The chemical composition and heat treatment of ductile iron have a great influence on the required mechanical properties. Given the operating conditions, the main purpose of heat treatment of ductile iron is to change the desired mechanical properties. Since the specific mechanical properties of ductile iron are generally related to the regularity of the mined graphite nodules, the main objective in production is to produce ductile iron with the highest possible percentage of ductility. In the experimental part of the paper, microstructure and hardness tests were carried out on specimens of ductile iron NL 400 and NL 700 before and after heat treatment by soft annealing (ferritization) and improvement. It was found that the type and corresponding parameters of heat treatment significantly affect the microstructure and the achieved hardness values of the ductile iron test specimens.


    The technology of obtaining copper-ferrochrome composite material

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 1, pg(s) 13-14

    The research of the technology of obtaining new copper-ferrochrome composite material has been done. The results of its structure and properties analysis are presented. The material structure consists of the copper base, non-dissolved coarse inclusions of ferrochrome, diffused zones, forming around these inclusions and phases, having formed in the place of completely dissolved inclusions of ferrochrome fine particles. The material has good mechanical properties and a high wear resistance due to the formed solid solutions of the carbides in the copper.

  • Phase transformations in high-entropy FeNiCoCrAl alloys during oxidation

    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 7 (2021), Issue 1, pg(s) 23-26

    The evolution of phase composition and mechanical properties and the formation of oxide layers on Fe40–xNiCoCrAlx (x = 5 and 10 at.%) alloys in long-term oxidation at 900 and 1000 °C were studied. In the initial cast state, depending on the aluminum content and valence electron concentration, the alloys contain only an fcc solid solution (VEC = 8 e/a) or a mixture of fcc and bcc phases (VEC = 7.75 e/a). Thin continuous oxide scales containing Cr2O3 and NiCr2O4 spinel formed on the surface of both alloys oxidized at 900°C for 50 h. A further increase in the annealing time to 100 h leads to the formation of aluminum oxide Al2O3 in the scale on the Fe30Ni25Co15Cr20Al10 alloy, having high protective properties. An increase in the oxidation temperature to 1000°C results in partial failure of the protective layer on the
    alloy with 10 at.% Al. Long-term holding at 900°C (100 h) + 1000°C (50 h) does not change the phase composition of the Fe35Ni25Co15Cr20Al5 alloy matrix, being indicative of its high thermal stability. In the two-phase Fe30Ni25Co15Cr20Al10 alloy, the quantitative ratio of solid solutions sharply changes: the amount of the bcc phase increases from 4 to 54 wt.% and its B2-type ordering is observed. The mechanical characteristics of the starting alloys and those after long-term high-temperature annealing were determined by automated indentation. It is shown how the hardness (HIT) and the elastic modulus (E) of alloys change after oxidation, depending on the Al content.


    Regularities of influence of electron beam technology on heat resistance of optical elements in precision instrument-making

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 206-209

    Existing experimental researches show that in order to prevent the destruction of optical elements of modern opto-electronic devices (discs as the light filter linings for IR devices, the input protective windows of laser sighting systems for observation in IR areas of the spectrum, semispherical fairings of IR devices for homing and observation of objects, lightguides for laser medical devices, etc.), electron beam method becomes promising, as it provides cleaning of surfaces, increases their microhardness, makes them more resistant to external influences. The results of experimental studies to improve the properties of the surface layers of elements from optical ceramics after their processing with a moving electron beam with a heat density Fn = 106…1.6∙107 W/m2 and moving speed V = 10-3…10-1 m/s (increase in the surface microhardness from 1.2 … 2.9 GPa (raw elements) to 5.7 … 6.4 GPa (processed elements), the occurrence of hardened layers with a thickness of 210… 230 microns). It has been established that the improvement of these properties leads to an increase in the resistance of elements to external thermal effects: an increase of 1.3…1.7 times the critical values of external heat flows and their exposure times, exceeding which leads to the destruction of elements and the failure of devices for the studied range of change of external pressure is 105…107 Pa; increasing the maximum allowable values of thermoelastic stresses in elements from 50…140 MPa to 160…370 MPa at heating temperatures of 300…1200 K.


    Comparison of corrosion resistance of traditional and modern alternative pipeline steel

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 4, pg(s) 172-176

    The paper presents results of research aimed at comparing selected properties of two types of pipe steels, conventional 17G1S-U steel and alternative S960QL steel. The steels were compared in terms of their chemical composition, microstructure, hardness and corrosion resistance. Static electrochemical corrosion tests were performed on the materials, namely electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS) and linear polarization (LP) in two electrolytes. The results show different chemical composition and microstructure of materials. 17G1S-U steel has a row-like ferritic-pearlitic structure with a hardness of 200 HV 0.1. S960QL steel has a martensitic structure with a hardness of 353 HV 0.1. Steels showed very close corrosion rate in both electrolytes.

  • Features of structure, phase composition and properties of hotforged high-entropy alloys of Ti-Cr-Fe-Ni-C system

    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 5 (2019), Issue 4, pg(s) 123-126

    Powder high-entropy alloys (HEA) of TiCrFeNiC equioatomic composition were synthesized by hot forging (HF). The phase composition and parameters of the fine structure of the alloys are determined. It is shown that at all annealing temperatures of the alloys their phase composition does not change significantly and consists of two solid solutions of substitution – FCC and BCC and two carbide phases – TiC and Cr3C2. The mechanical properties of the alloys are at a rather high level – so the maximum strength of the alloy was 2243 MPa and the hardness is more than 62 HRC, which can be explained by the effect of high entropy and in situ synthesis of carbides in the manufacture of alloys.

  • The mode of hardening heat treatment for deformable piston hypereutectic silumins

    Materials Science. Non-Equilibrium Phase Transformations., Vol. 5 (2019), Issue 3, pg(s) 74-77

    A series of piston hypereutectic silumin based on Al – (15÷20) % Si, alloyed with copper, magnesium, nickel, chromium is investigated. The mechanical characteristics of ingots from experimental alloys were determined: temporary tensile strength, hardness, relative elongation depending on the composition of the alloys, and temperature coefficient of linear expansion (TCLE). It is shown that the tensile strength of forged blanks is 1.5-2.4 times higher than ingots of hypereutectic silumins. The resulting structure of forgings ensures their high plasticity (relative elongation δ = 5.7÷7.5%; relative narrowing Ψ = 10.3÷14.2%). The optimal mode of heat treatment of deformed silumin is determined: quenching from step heating and aging, which allows increasing the strength of forgings up to 370-470 MPa. Moreover, the plasticity indicators remain at a high level, and the average thermal expansion coefficient of the alloys is (18.0 ÷ 19.2) · 10-6 K-1 in the range of 50 ÷ 200 ° C.


    Composite polymeric materials modified by nanodispersion functionalized particles

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 13 (2019), Issue 10, pg(s) 471-473

    The paper considers the impact of functionalized nanosized carbon particles on the physicomechanical characteristics of composite materials based on polyamides. The concentration of the modifier varied both in the field of “doping” concentrations and in the field of concentrations used in the industrial production of nanocomposite materials based on polymer matrices. It was found that the use of cryogenic treatment of the initial polyamide leads to an increase in physical and mechanical characteristics. The introduction of nanodispersed particles in the field of “doping” concentrations increases the strength and hardness of the developed compositions based on a polyamide matrix.