One of the most effective methods for solving optimal control problems with mixed constraints is a continuation method for optimal trajectories. This method, unlike the direct methods, allows you to track the qualitative features of the behavior of optimal trajectories, which is especially important when solving applied tasks.
Science. Business. Society.
Vol. 1 (2016), Issue 3
Table of Contents
The idea of smart cities is timely considering that urbanisation is inevitable. While smart city as a concept has gained popularity over the past few years, there is vagueness in the definition, as multiple aspects including governance, public transport and traffic, waste management, entertainment and safety among others, need to be considered.
Europe is among the most urbanised regions on the globe. It is estimated that by 2020 around 80% of Europeans will be living in urban areas, in several countries the proportion will be 90% or more. As we continue to magnetise towards urban hubs we need smart cities – places where networks and services are made more efficient with the use of digital and telecommunication technologies for the benefit of inhabitants, businesses and the environment. The EU is trying to ensure that smart solutions for cities can be explored, implemented and replicated.
The present paper defines some of the aspects of the smart city as safety as well as specific models of smart and safe city will be discussed.
The present paper presents the development of the VeloCity project which seeks to promote the cycling as a part of daily transport and recreation. One of the main objectives is integration of bicycle into urban multimodal mobility and urban planning and other relevant policy sectors where cycling plays an important role. For obtaining the goal a survey is conducted locally and via Internet and the results are analyzed; user requirements analysis is conducted through information resources study, and a number of user scenario are defined.
Basic parameters of a smart bicycle are defined through summarizing the most interesting and useful user scenarios, applicable for more safety, flexible and comfortable cycling. The user scenarios are the base for hardware and software development for a smart bicycle, selection of proper technologies, building of a prototype and experimental platform for the smart system testing.
MECHANISMS FOR MEASURING OUTPUT POWER AND POWER SPECTRAL DENSITY OF A TRANSMITTER IN A WIMAX RADIO NETWORKpg(s) 15-17
The report examines current problem in wireless WiMAX networks, namely the possible ways and mechanisms to measure the output power and power spectral density of radio transmitter. The purpose of measurement is to determine the maximum output power of the transmitter is within the manufacturer’s declared value with a certain tolerance set by EN / ETS and does not exceed the maximum limits. Also to measure or calculate the power spectral density of radiated power in the frequency channel with a specific width. The following parameters must be measured in full and coordinated load of the transmitter. These are the key parameters needed to research for the effective design of broadband WiMAX wireless data system.
APPLYING PRODUCTION RELATED KNOWLEDGE WHEN ANALYZING HEALTHCARE PROBLEMS USING SIMULATION APPROACHESpg(s) 18-21
The focus of this paper is the knowledge gained from the engineers when solving production related problems and how this can be utilized when solving issues in the healthcare. Based on this, a research has been made where engineers have conceptualized and developed a simulation model for one polyclinic using real data. The simulation model is a hybrid one using Discrete Event Simulation and Agent Based Modelling approaches. It is created applying the basic principles of the queuing theory that is unavoidable even in the simplest production systems. The model simulates the patient flow in the polyclinic. By using experiments and analysis, what is the ideal number of resources with whom the waiting time of the patient would be under a certain time limit is suggested. This research showed that the possibilities of the application of simulations in healthcare and the benefits of their use are endless.
The amount of paper dyed is increasing each of the last few years, mainly because the increasing consumption of corrugated board papers. Paper is colored by dyes of different chemical nature – inorganic pigments; synthetic organic pigments; basic, acid, direct dyes and others. The reactive dyes are capable of forming covalent dye-polymers bonds, for instance, with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose. In this experiment are being used two laboratory synthesized reactive dyes, derivatives of chlorotriazine and one of them contains a stabilizer fragment. Dyes are used in the composition of offset printing paper with a fiber content of bleached softwood and hardwood pulp in a ratio of 1:1. The paper is sized with alkyl ketene dimer and as filler is used natural calcium carbonate. The strength and hydrophobic properties are being examined. The optical properties are also been examined before and after accelerated thermal ageing of the resulting paper samples and it is being found out that the examined dyes can be of an interest for an industrial production.
Recycled waste paper is a raw material for the paper industry. One of the most important processes in the recycling of waste paper, for the ability to print, is deinking. One perspective and ecological method for implementing that is the flotation process with enzymatic treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate the deinking of secondary fibrous material, obtained from waste paper, by flotation of offset printed paper by the use of different types of enzymes – lipase, cellulase, amylase, xylanase, on the process of deinking by flotation. In this research are being investigated various proportions of enzymes, and combinations thereof with surfactants. Their ability of deinking is calculated. As a result the treatment of the secondary fibers with the enzymes, improves the papermaking properties. The improved recovery papermaking properties of secondary fibers by the effect of enzymes, is able to increase the number of cycles of use of waste paper and to improve some parameters of the paper produced from secondary fiber. The optical properties of the obtained deinked fiber material are investigated and the possibilities for its usage in the composition of various types of paper and paperboard.
The degradation of soils is due to a combination of factors. One of them is the annual deep plowing. In this way the soil is left exposed to the vagaries of nature for a few months. Precipitation presented by the rain drops and their energy, destroys the soil structure and activates anthropogenic erosion processes. With intensive tillage, involving reversing of the plow layer, a number of processes are initiated, leading to oxidizing and burning of organic matter and, hence, to its continuous decrease. The extensive use of large quantities of mineral fertilizers and the additional commercialization of crop rotation also have a negative effect in the form of soil degradation. With the purpose of reducing the number of passages of tractor units on the field surface, a new type of tillage is proposed, without reversal of the plow layer, but with retaining a large part of the plant residue on the surface instead.
THE EDUCATION IN ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION-A BASIS FOR SUCCESSFUL REALIZATION OF THE STUDENTS FROM THE UNIVERSITY OF MINING AND GEOLOGY "ST. IVAN RILSKI"pg(s) 36-38
Introduction of training in entrepreneurship, innovation and project management is one of the most discussed topics in the field of education as a whole. Particular attention is paid to this education in the field of higher education and is one of the priority objectives of the Europe 2020 strategy.
According to the European Commission study, carried out in the Member States of the EU and 15 other countries in the period 2015-2015 students received training in entrepreneurship and innovation be implemented most successfully. They are the best paid in the labor market, employment is almost maximum, the more likely they are to start their own business and their companies are the most innovative and creative.
This article presents the experience in entrepreneurship education, innovation and project management of the students from the UMG "St. Ivan Rilski”, Sofia.
An essential point in this education is the acquisition of knowledge and skills that link higher education with the requirements of the business and the labor market.
The innovations in the public sector follow those in the business sector. The reasons are at least two – the necessary conservatism of the sector and setting-out of the initiatives of the "top". However, the introduction of innovations in the public organizations is not only necessary, but also mandatory, as it is directly related to the administrative capacity to perform effectively and efficiently their inherent functions.
The operations with the public finances has always been the focus of public attention, which is sensitive to the way of spending taxpayers’ money. Therefore, innovation in this field should be directed towards greater transparency, control, efficiency and effectiveness. Opportunities for that exist in areas such as financial analysis, financial planning and forecasting, development of program budgets, and application of the financial management and control.
Innovative models of public finance management are presented in the paper, with emphasis on the use of cloud technologies for ex-ante control over the spending of budget funds. Such cloud structure was probated in some Bulgarian municipalities and its effectiveness and efficiency was proven in terms of facilitation the work of financial controllers, implementation of rapid control activities, generation of checkups and reports and upgrading the confidence in the operation of control systems.
The process of creating innovative entrepreneurship is conditioned largely by endogenous factors of organizations and their ability to implement innovative solutions into business practice. This paper presents innovative interactive ICT-solutions offered by technology companies belonging to the SMEs sector. Considerations have been focused on the innovative devices (holographic pyramids, multimedia tables, and fog screens) and services dedicated to the needs of individual customers in the B2B area.
The aim of this paper is to show the importance of patent protection in small and medium-sized enterprises and to identify the major challenges for intellectual property management faced by this group of companies. The study provides a literature review on patent activity in small and medium-sized enterprises. On this basis, it can be concluded that small firms may be disadvantaged by their size in the use of patent protection. Consequently, most companies prefer informal appropriation mechanisms, such as secrecy, lead time advantage or complexity of product design. The reasons for the relatively low patent activity of small and medium-sized enterprises is the lack of sufficient funds and knowledge on the management, as well as the limited capacity of exercising their intellectual property. The article also identifies the most promising directions of further research and articulates a number of recommendations both for managers as well as for policy makers.
SYSTEMATIC COMPARISON OF EXISTING AND NEW APPROACHES FOR MONITORING COMPLIANCE RULES OVER BUSINESS PROCESSESpg(s) 50-53
The body of literature on business process compliance is large and approaches specifically addressing process monitoring are hard to identify. Moreover, proper means for the systematic comparison of these approaches are missing. Hence, it is unclear which approaches are suitable for particular scenarios. The goal of this paper is to define a framework for Compliance Monitoring Functionalities (CMF) that enables the systematic comparison of existing and new approaches for monitoring compliance rules over business processes during runtime. To define the scope of the framework, at first, related areas are identified and discussed. The CMFs are harvested based on a systematic literature review and five selected case studies. The appropriateness of the selection of CMFs is demonstrated in two ways: (a) a systematic comparison with pattern-based compliance approaches and (b) a classification of existing compliance monitoring approaches using the CMFs. Moreover, the application of the CMFs is showcased using three existing tools that are applied to two realistic data sets. Overall, the CMF framework provides powerful means to position existing and future compliance monitoring approaches.
Modern society brought high demands on the quality of information systems, which require the use of modern methodologies and software to automate the process and reduce development time of the project and raise its quality. One of the most promising approaches in this direction is the Model Driven Development (MDD), that is an innovative approach for development of different software applications using models at different levels of abstraction and applying model transformation to code generation. The main objective of this paper is to present an approach for model-driven development of online air ticket reservation system based on UML.UML use case diagrams and class diagram are used to model the main requirements and data model of the system respectively in order to achieve reusable and portable models of the system. The developed UML conceptual data model is implemented in a MySQL based database. Finally, some conclusions are made.
Nowadays E-commerce is gaining more and more popularity, it contains all possible financial and trade transactions which are made via computer networks. Model-driven software development (MDSD) is the key to create the exact and accurate software application. All the necessary information is taken from a database. The most widely used database management system is MySQL. The latter is an open-source relational database management system, which is written in C programming language. In order to clarify the working process of an organization, a UML class diagram is created. The UML (Unified Modeling Language) is used for making graphical visual models for all the business processes. The paper presents the main stages of e-commerce transaction, using E-shop as an example.
THE ROLE OF THE MOBILE APPLICATIONS FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE EXECUTIVE FUNCTIONS FOR THE CHILDREN WITH LEARNING DISABILIYpg(s) 62-65
The article interpretes the possibilities of the mobile applications to favorably influence the development of the executive functions in pupils with learning disability. There are options for the use of different mobile applications in school and therapeutic activities as well as in the results of the empirical research.
The model for ergonomic research includes an analysis and evaluation of a number of factors arising from:
1) the human factor (the trainer and the trainee) the organization and the results of his operations (assessment of effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction)
2) the level of the management and improvement of the electronic environment -hardware and software;
3) the conditions in the school premises, laboratories, auditoriums, offices and others. The paper presents results from a study with university teaching staff and students from UCTM using a methodology specifically designed for an ergonomic study of e-learning.