The argument of this paper is rotary the tiller blade, which undergoes severe surface wear during tillage of agricultural land. The study was conducted by comparing on H-shaped blades, of two different manufacturers, used in rotary tillers, mainly in the fields of Myzeqe, Lushnje. Our tests included the measurement of the abrasive wearing as weight loss of material of each blade to the end of lifecycle – recorded after every 10 hectares cultivated surface in field conditions. We experimented in laboratory the blade wearing through ‘pin on disk’ test. Another tribological parameter measured in the laboratory was the hardness in Vickers on cutting edge of the blade, before and after wearing. To make the targeted optimization, we initially computed a stressed situation on the blade cutting edge, and then processed through the SOLIDWORKS software, which generates a map of more stressed areas that lead to significant wear. By simulating with geometric parameters of tiller blades, we have sought the situation of stresses with less impact on wearing of tiller blades. This paper is also includes relevant recommendations.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 3
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Since the tractor is the main energy source in agriculture, the state with highly developed agrarian production, tractor and agricultural machine building should have a fairly clear and consistent policy in the field of organizing the production and supply to agricultural producers of a wide range of tractors for various purposes. Such a policy is based on the type of mobile energy resources, i.e. tractors, based on a deep analysis and study of the volume of agricultural production, the needs for mechanized technologies, the theory of the operation of agricultural machines, the overall assessment of the development of high-tech agriculture. The purpose of this study is to develop theoretical bases for calculating the type of agricultural tractors based on an optimization of technical and economic analysis, taking into account the need for a qualitative and timely implementation of the entire closed set of works in agricultural production. During the research methods of machine use in agriculture, higher mathematics, economics, compilation of programs and numerical calculations on PC were used. The results of the study showed that the classification of tractors should be carried out not according to traction power (as is done in most countries of the world), but by the nominal traction force developed by them. It has been established that this gives a more accurate representation of the operational properties of an energy tool, which in turn allows for the very accurate and correct selection of complexes of appropriate agricultural machinery and implements for its effective operation. The presented theoretical approaches allow to determine with a high degree of accuracy the type of agricultural tractors for any country.
The tried-and-tested seed drill is a modified version of a factory-made seed drill for punched wide-row sowing in paired rows. Failure to observe basic prerequisites, such as agro-technical time, proper soil preparation, compliance with sowing norms, depth of sowing, etc., leads to irreversible losses in the production of a given crop. The seed drill under investigation is part of a machine system used to implement an innovative technology that does not involve traditional soil cultivation machines. This requires that a cultivator section be included in its device to prepare the soil at the same time as sowing. Turning the seed drill into a combined machine requires it to check its performance. The inspection was carried out by examining the degree of crushing of the layer, the alignment of the profile of the treated strip and the deviation from the set depth of sowing. Each of these metrics is considered as an optimization parameter (𝑥𝑥).
One of the most acute problems in the effective use of small-sized agricultural machinery, in particular, motor blocks, is the stabilization of their rectilinear motion on the slopes work. The purpose of this study is to increase the stabilizing moment of the motor block, by theoretically justifying its movement across the slope with a stabilizing device. The research uses modeling methods, theoretical mechanics and higher mathematics. As a result of the theoretical study, the conditions for the balance of the running wheels of the aggregate in the structure of the motor block and the agricultural implement when moving along the slope surface, as well as the traction of the wheels with the soil, are determined, taking into account the lateral force leading this unit down the slope. At the same time, as a stabilizing device, a micro-tiller is used, which makes it possible to pre-make a stabilizing groove for the wheels of the motor block. Further, using the developed power circuit, analytical expressions are compiled that allow us to numerically determine the structural and power parameters of a given aggregate, allowing it to stabilize its steady motion when working on a slope.
Acoustic cavitation in water causes water’s break in vacuum phase of passing of sound wave and then collapse of this break in manometric phase. These processes are taking place 3000 times a second all over the functional volume of cavitator. This leads to seeds’ awakening and massaging, improves metabolism and stimulates their development and functioning. There are four technology areas in cavitator: 1) internal functional space, 2) central part of space, 3) passive space from the outside of resonator (housing), 4) external heat space around cavitator.
The Academy conducted study on seed treatment in each of these areas. Moreover, in passive area and in external space experiments were performed both in wet and dry options. Analysis of experimental results showed: first, all kinds of treatment in all zones of cavitator have advantages over conventional soaking seeds; secondly, each of the processing forms has its own advantages: 1) dry processing is characterized by thermal and vibrational effects on seeds, it requires their direct contact with the resonator, 2) wet processing in passive zone is characterized by additional water exposure and transmission of vibration effects from resonator over long distances, that enables to increase size of functional area and pre-processing performance, 3) processing in central part of the active zone provides essential decrease of exposure time from tens of minutes to 3-5, that allows using this method in industrial agriculture, 4)processing in turbulent flow of active zone damages seeds and is suitable only for solid seeds and seeds difficult to germinate. Using cavitator improves seed germination by tens of percent when shortened processing time. This reduces the labor intensity, improves pre-processing performance and leads to higher yields.
In the report the methods for controlling and managing the processes in agriculture are justified and systematized and a methodology for applying the statistical methods for analysis, control and management of the quality of the agricultural processes has been developed. Finally, the factors influencing the quality of technological processes in agriculture are also labeled.
The report focuses on the current problems of mechanization of agricultural production, and agrarian science is seen as a subsystem of the national economy and as a continuously evolving system, characterizing the objectives of its functioning, composition and structure of its elements, as well as the way of interaction and interconnection Between its elements. From a system point of view, mechanized technologies in agricultural production, based on agricultural mechanics, are inseparable from the processes of their organization and management.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
STUDYING CORRESPONDENCE OF RAGWEED POLLEN’S AIRBORNE CONCENTRATION AND THE NEW GREENING MEASURES UNDER THE COMMON AGRICULTURE POLICYpg(s) 115-118
Common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia) is considered as an invasive alien weed species. Based on the former field surveys, five million hectares, cca. 85% of the Hungarian agricultural area is endangered by ragweed; while around 0.7 million hectares are strongly infected. Cereal stubble is a major habitat of late-growing ragweed populations. Almost 60% of allergic patients (meaning 1.5-2 million people) suffer from ragweed pollen allergy in Hungary. Pollen concentration was measured in the air using Hirst-type pollen traps from year 2000 to 2016 at 19 monitoring stations in Hungary. A map of the crop types were created, using declared parcels of area based payments, validated by remote sensing data. Linear regression was applied to calculate relationship between seasonal pollen index and crop types at each monitoring stations. Our results showed that the land cover area of cereals, corn and sunflower showed positive correlation with ragweed pollen concentrations. This positive correlation had been changed in 2016 that is why we had started to analyse the changes of the system and their potential effects. Unexpectedly, the pollen concentration decreased rapidly in early September of 2016. No precipitation occurred at this time, i.e. reduction of pollen level could not be explained by the wash out of pollen grain from the air by raindrops. Among the possible reasons, the effect of the newly introduced greening obligations related to the area based direct payments (based on the EC regulation 1307/2013) was concerned. The new diversification requirement under the greening contains the possibility of planting catch crops between successive plantings of a main crops, that is why it have a direct effect on the arable stubble management. It is supposed that the late-growing ragweed populations may be suppressed by the catch crops. In order to perform effective ragweed eradication, further studies are needed to optimize agricultural technologies of stubble management.
The article is devoted to the problem of increasing the efficiency of using mobile agricultural aggregates by reducing the impact of their running systems on the soil. The work on the efficiency of the use of mobile agricultural units based on the automobile chassis in agroindustrial production is analyzed, which shows the results of studies on the changes in their designs with the purpose of reducing the harmful influence of chassis running systems on soil. One of the ways to reduce the harmful influence of running systems of mobile agricultural units on Execution of technological operations, both in field conditions and in transport operations while driving along the road Mobile roads. The main ways that will ensure the effective use of the automobile chassis in field conditions and on highways are analyzed. It has been found that the most effective is the equipment of automobile chassis with wide – profile tires with adjustable internal air pressure and a tire – pumping control system, which makes it possible to effectively use the chassis both in the main technological operations (in the field) and in transport operations (on the roads). The influence of the air pressure in the tire of the wheel of the running system of the KrAZ – 6322 automobile chassis and the normal load on the contact area of the tire with the supporting surface and pressure on it is established. To use the automobile chassis for performing agricultural operations in field conditions, it is necessary to equip it with wide – profile tires with adjustable internal air pressure and a tire – pumping monitoring system that will reduce the negative impact on the soil of the mobile agricultural unit and expand the list of technological operations on which it can be used.
Organic agriculture finally renounces the use of herbicides. Taking into account the positive qualities of weeds, the aim is not to their complete elimination, but to reduce the available quantity, which is not harmful to yields. With these prerequisites weed control on the non-chemical way is becoming more important as a major place occupied the variety of crop rotation and other indirect ways to control the weeds. For their regulation by a non-chemical route in practice farmers use appropriate machines and devices and therefore pay particular attention to the mechanical implements, automatic systems and thermal control of weeds. In organic farms for vegetables use also cultivators with automatic diverting knives and cultivators with automatic rotating knives, controlled by video cameras and sensors. Robotic machines for weed control have also been developed in recent years, controlled by GPS agricultural navigation.