Technological and technological support as the main factor of sustainability development of agro-industrial production

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 3, pg(s) 106-110

    Creation of prerequisites for increasing the efficiency of crop production through the innovation development of the industry on the basis of knowledge-intensive technologies and technology and their compliance with the conditions of conducting agrarian business. Monographic, economic-mathematical, graph-analytical, system engineering. It was established that the main reserve for improving the efficiency of agricultural production is the innovative development of the industry on the basis of resource-saving technologies and technology of the new generation. It is determined that the characteristic feature of the modern period of development of agricultural production is the need to ensure the continuity and rhythm of production processes, their adaptability to changing natural and climatic conditions, increase resource – and energy efficiency due to technical and operational-technological characteristics of the technology, its universalization. Requirements for the development of the material and technical base of the agrarian sector of the Ukrainian economy are determined. The general direction of the development of the technical and technological base of agricultural production should be the creation and production of universal machines equipped with automation tools that are easy to adapt to the specific production conditions and requirements of agrotechnics, and ensure the implementation of technological processes in the established agricultural machinery with the minimum possible costs of energy resources for the production of safe food products.

  • Laboratory and field equipment workingout and the results of experimental studies of pre-harvesting sugar beet field conditions

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 6, pg(s) 188-190

    Described in the scientific literature the results of experimental studies and performance test of the technological process of sugar beet harvesting conducted in recent years have shown that modern sugar-beet harvesters manufactured in Europe and America work with significant losses of sugar-bearing plant materials. These losses are due to generally poor topping quality of sugar beet on a root. Therefore, nowadays the search of technical solutions enabling to avoid these losses is of great to importance as it increases the yield of sugar-bearing plant materials per hectare of crops. The purpose of research is to reduce the losses of sugar-bearing plant materials in the course of separation process of sugar beet tops from heads of root crops on a root. While conducting research the methods of field experimental research on the measurement of physical parameters of the technological process were used, as well as methods of statistical processing of the measurement results with the use of computer. New experimental equipment was designed for the field experimental studies being equipped with modern electronic equipment with data transfer to a PC. As a result of the experimental investigation of the distribution heads heights above the ground of sugar beet roots confirmation has been received hypothesis that it does not deny the law of the normal distribution. The results of the multiple measurements enabled set limits of changes in their statistical characteristics, which are as follows: average statistical deviation σ = 20 … 30 mm, the expectation m = 40 … 60 mm. A new design of the laboratory equipment and results of the experimental studies, conducted on it, have given every reason to design and develop a new system of automatic adjustment of the height of cut tops, which can be used in designs of modern sugar-beet harvesting machines.

  • Study plane-parallel motion movement combined seeding unit

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 6, pg(s) 184-187

    Conducted analytical studies, resulted in the construction of a new mathematical model of plane-parallel motion combined simultaneous sowing unit and bandpass mineral fertilizers. If you use the original equation in the form of Lagrange II-the kind, the system was composed of six differential equations of motion, that describes the behavior of the combined unit with its plane-parallel motion. Defined analytical expressions for the forces, that act on the machine unit, can be solved on the PC.

  • Methodology and results of experimental studies of combined unit for sugar beet tops harvesting on the basis of a row-crop tractor

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 5, pg(s) 158-161

    On the basis of an integrated wheel-type tractor (traction class 3.0), there was created the new combined machine and tractor unit carried out a continuous flat cutting of the sugar beet tops with a front mounted sugar beet tops cutting machine. To carry out this field experimental studies, a program and methodology was developed based on measurements of the remains of the tops on the heads of root crops after passing through the aggregate at a given rate of translational motion, the height of the installation of its rotary cutting mechanism above the level of the soil surface and the frequency of its rotation. The results of the study were statistically processed on a personal computer using regression and correlation analysis methods. Based on the developed methodology of the full-factor experiment, empirical mathematical models were constructed in the form of regression equations for the process of cutting the tops of sugar beet. According to the results of these calculations, it was found that the speed of the forward movement of the sugar beet tops cutting aggregate exerts the greatest influence on the mass of the remains of the tops on the spherical surfaces of the root heads, after a continuous main cut. In a lesser extent, this process is influenced by the rotational speed of the rotor of the sugar beet tops cutting machine and the height of the rotor installation above the soil surface level by means of two pneumatic copying wheels. According to the results of experimental studies, it has been established that the rational design and technological parameters of the process for harvesting sugar beet tops by a front mounted sugar beet tops harvesting  machine with a rotary cutting apparatus is its rotation frequency equal to 960 rpm, the speed of the aggregate should not exceed 2.0 m.s-1, and the height of the rotor installation should be as low as possible, not less than 0.02 m.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 2, pg(s) 46-48

    The article is devoted to the problem of drying seeds without their thermal injury by applying vacuum technology. In this paper work presents experimental studies of vacuum drying of seeds of grain crops on the example of maize seeds, during which the safe drying regimes were studied, in which the most intense water separation occurs. It has been found that by heating the batch of seeds to 30° C and subsequent evacuation to a pressure of 4 kPa with bubbling under atmospheric pressure is most intense dehumidification at a rate of 0.259%/min.



    Trans Motauto World, Vol. 2 (2017), Issue 3, pg(s) 104-106

    Maintaining of the combine harvesters in an efficient condition throughout the harvest season is an important task of technical service. The most important elements in the work of combine harvesters are their steering mechanisms, the performance of which must have a high degree of availability, especially of their hydraulic drives. The purpose of this study is to increase the operational reliability of the steering drives of the combine harvesters, based on the development of an improved method for diagnosing of their hydraulic drives. During the research, the methods of theoretical and experimental research were used, based on the theory of machine operation, hydraulics, as well as modern methods of experimental studies of hydraulic equipment. The data of the experimental studies were processed by statistical methods using a PC. Theoretically and experimentally, an improved method for diagnosing of the hydraulic drives has been developed with the aim to increase the technical readiness of combine harvesters and reduce the costs of their maintenance and repair. A new methodical approach and results of studies on the creation of a diagnostic system for the hydraulic drive of the combine harvester’s power steering have been developed.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 5, pg(s) 180-182

    Theoretical investigations have been conducted of the technological process of a sugar beet haulm topping machine with a rotary cutter mechanism, as a result of which there is developed a refined mathematical model of interaction of the cutting blade with a bundle of leaves, the blade being pivotally fixed on the horizontal drive shaft of the arcuate cutting blade. Basic analytical dependencies have been obtained, application of which in designing and constructing of a haulm topping machine will ensure guaranteed quality removal of the bundles of leaves without extracting the sugar beet roots from the soil. The numerical calculations of the obtained analytical expressions performed on the PC, using a prearranged program, made it possible to determine the design parameters of the rotary haulm topping apparatus.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 140-142

    Modern technologies of harvesting sugar beet tops provide solid preliminary cutting and collecting its harvest at the increased altitude and subsequent additional root crops heads cleaning from tops residues on a root. This last operation also defines quality of root crops of beet before their digging up. Objective of this research is improvement quality of root crops heads cleaning from tops remains, by development of interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a spherical surface of root crop head. In the theoretical study were used methods of modeling, higher mathematics and theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and carrying out numerical calculations on the PC. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a root crop head surface in the course of its cleaning from tops remains is developed. On the basis of the received differential equations of blade movement which is pivotally mounted on the drive shaft with a horizontal axis of rotation, new mathematical dependences which justify basic parameters of this technology process are given.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 3, pg(s) 119-121

    The article is devoted to the problem of increasing the efficiency of using mobile agricultural aggregates by reducing the impact of their running systems on the soil. The work on the efficiency of the use of mobile agricultural units based on the automobile chassis in agroindustrial production is analyzed, which shows the results of studies on the changes in their designs with the purpose of reducing the harmful influence of chassis running systems on soil. One of the ways to reduce the harmful influence of running systems of mobile agricultural units on Execution of technological operations, both in field conditions and in transport operations while driving along the road Mobile roads. The main ways that will ensure the effective use of the automobile chassis in field conditions and on highways are analyzed. It has been found that the most effective is the equipment of automobile chassis with wide – profile tires with adjustable internal air pressure and a tire – pumping control system, which makes it possible to effectively use the chassis both in the main technological operations (in the field) and in transport operations (on the roads). The influence of the air pressure in the tire of the wheel of the running system of the KrAZ – 6322 automobile chassis and the normal load on the contact area of the tire with the supporting surface and pressure on it is established. To use the automobile chassis for performing agricultural operations in field conditions, it is necessary to equip it with wide – profile tires with adjustable internal air pressure and a tire – pumping monitoring system that will reduce the negative impact on the soil of the mobile agricultural unit and expand the list of technological operations on which it can be used.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 3, pg(s) 98-100

    One of the most acute problems in the effective use of small-sized agricultural machinery, in particular, motor blocks, is the stabilization of their rectilinear motion on the slopes work. The purpose of this study is to increase the stabilizing moment of the motor block, by theoretically justifying its movement across the slope with a stabilizing device. The research uses modeling methods, theoretical mechanics and higher mathematics. As a result of the theoretical study, the conditions for the balance of the running wheels of the aggregate in the structure of the motor block and the agricultural implement when moving along the slope surface, as well as the traction of the wheels with the soil, are determined, taking into account the lateral force leading this unit down the slope. At the same time, as a stabilizing device, a micro-tiller is used, which makes it possible to pre-make a stabilizing groove for the wheels of the motor block. Further, using the developed power circuit, analytical expressions are compiled that allow us to numerically determine the structural and power parameters of a given aggregate, allowing it to stabilize its steady motion when working on a slope.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 1, pg(s) 3-10

    In theoretical study of most of agricultural machines working bodies there is a need of the modeling of material particles (material points) motion on their working surfaces. Questions of such modeling in cases when the specified surfaces are give to material points movement with difficult trajectories are especially difficult. Objective of this research is to develop the basic provisions of complex movement theory of material point. When carrying out research methods of modeling theory, theoretical mechanics, higher mathematics, in particular differential geometry, methods of drawing up programs and numerical calculations on the personal computer are used. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the complex movement of material point which relative movement happens in a moving trihedron of curve which is defined by the natural equations is considered. The figurative movement of a trihedron is defined by differential characteristics of curve. Competency of use of Frenet formulas for finding absolute speed and point acceleration in projections on unit vectors of the moving trihedron is proved. As a result of numerical calculations on the personal computer there were found absolute trajectories of material point movement and qualitative assessment of received results was carried out.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 5, pg(s) 6-8

    High seeding quality of grain crops under modern technologies causes increase of requirements to seeders opener. We developed a new design of the combined two-disk anchor opener which can qualitatively carry out their functions under modern technologies, in particular no-till. Research purpose is development of the functioning theory of the created new furrow-opener design which integrates in itself constructive elements of two-disk openers and anchor type openers and can works on roughly prepared soil with plant residues and provides the stable seeds sowing depth at the increased seeding speeds. When carrying out researches methods of mathematics, theoretical mechanics, modeling, researches results statistical analysis, drawing up programs for calculations on PC are used. Parameters of the combined two-disk opener with the advanced mechanism of sowing depth regulation are substantiated. On the basis of the scheme of a opener design it is proved need of using certain rigidity spring for stability seeding to a predetermined depth within the agrotechnology limit.

    Dependences for calculation of rational spring elasticity which take into account geometrical parameters of opener design are obtained. The pilot studies conducted in field conditions confirm advantages of new constructive decisions of this combined opener. It is established that the seeder with the combined two-disk anchor openers steadily puts seeds on a compacted seed bed that excludes inertial seeds ejection beyond the agrotechnology limits, including at the increased seeding speeds.