Table of Contents

  • MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE

    • The usage of unmanned aerial vehicles in agriculture

      pg(s) 3-5

      The research explores the use of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), commonly known as drones, in agriculture. It highlights the rapid advancement of drone technology, which has made high-quality drones more accessible. Historically developed for military purposes, drones now serve various civil applications, particularly in agriculture. The document categorizes drones based on their propulsion systems – rotor and fixed-wing type drones being favoured in agriculture. The agricultural benefits of drones are substantial, including precise monitoring of field conditions, targeted pest and disease control, and efficient crop management. The adoption of drone technology can lead to improved efficiency, productivity, and sustainability in agriculture. By staying informed about regulatory compliance and collaborating with technology providers, the agricultural sector can fully harness the potential of drones.

    • Theoretical basis for calculating reliability indicators of agricultural machines

      pg(s) 6-7

      Calculating and increasing the reliability indicators of machines is an important problem as they won’t be competitive in the world market without this high indicator. Currently, many scientists have developed scientific foundations for calculating the reliability of machines, installations, instruments and devices in radio electronics, aviation, space, mechanical engineering and other industries, but such research is not acceptable for agricultural machines that operate in special soil-climatic and dynamic conditions. Their working bodies are constantly subject to alternating dynamic loads, abrasive particles in the cultivated soil, exposure and inclination of the relief, high humidity, high radiation, etc. All these factors cause intensive wear of their working bodies and therefore, such machines are subject to special requirements for reliability. In addition, agricultural machines must have high reliability due to the fact that harvesting is carried out in a short time and failures of such machines lead to significant losses of agricultural products. We have developed theoretical principles and methods for calculating the reliability of agricultural machines, taking into account the specifics of their designs and operating conditions. For this purpose, modern methods of probabilistic-statistical modeling, queuing theory, similarity and dimensions were used. A methodology for calculating reliability was also developed taking into account the structural and logical diagrams of machines and such diagrams of specific machines were drawn up.

    • Experimental studies of a wheeled tractor running on alternative fuel

      pg(s) 8-10

      The results of experimental studies of a wheeled tractor with a diesel engine converted into a spark-ignition gas engine are presented. The D-243 diesel engine was converted into a spark-ignition gas engine for operation on natural gas, and its bench tests were conducted, confirming its operational capability and demonstrating good performance indicators. It was found that the total toxicity, reduced to carbon oxide, of the gas engine is 1.9 times lower than that of the diesel engine. This is particularly important when using the vehicle for technological purposes, as it can operate indoors in this case. Using the same technology and components, the MTZ-80 tractor was also converted for operation on gas fuels. Road tests were conducted, and certain operating parameters were investigated: engine crankshaft rotation frequency, intake manifold pressure, throttle valve opening angle of the air-fuel mixer, and the rotation frequency of the vehicle’s driving wheel, which can determine its speed. The obtained data were used to verify the adequacy of the mathematical model of the tractor’s movement during the driving cycle.

    • Experimental study of a finger safety clutch of a screw conveyor

      pg(s) 11-13

      The paper presents the constructions of finger safety clutch of screw conveyor, as well as the developed laboratory installation for conducting experimental studies in determining the optimal parameters and modes of operation of screw conveyor at overloaded working body. The results of experimental studies of the finger safety clutch are given, which allow to estimate the intensity of influence of this or that parameter on the torque value at different stages of its operation.

    • Digital technology for determining quality indicators and classification of apple fruits based on computer vision and deep learning

      pg(s) 14-16

      This article examines the use of computer vision and deep learning to automatically determine key quality indicators of apples, enhancing product quality. It describes a digital method for measuring apple size, ripeness, and variety classification using an automated optoelectronic system, achieving an accuracy of at least 86%. Advantages, limitations, and potential productivity benefits for Kazakhstan’s apple production are discussed. An algorithm developed with OpenCV in Python analyzes apple images to determine diameter, height, surface area, red color proportion, and external defects. Tested on “Sinap Almaty” apples, the method measures linear dimensions, crosssectional area, and redness percentage.

    • Design development of a new unit for cassette-free breeding of grain moths in the production of trichograms for plant protection

      pg(s) 17-19

      The aim of the work is to study and substantiate the design of the installation for realization of the technology of cassette-free breeding of the grain moth (Sitotroga cerealella). This installation assumes the realization of the cycle of technological operations (infestation, maintenance, output and collection of adults) in one apparatus. This allows to reduce the number of technological operations, labor costs, metal intensity and production area. Cultivation of grain moths in a large volume makes it possible to abandon the traditional cassette-box technology and move to the construction of new generation entomological production facilities. The developed unit for the production of grain moths is recommended for use in the implementation of biotechnological processes in accordance with the created technological scheme of industrial production of trichogramma. The proposed installation allows to create industrial production equipment. Technical characteristics of the developed installation are formed. Its practical value consists in the fact that in comparison with the traditional cassette-box method of breeding the improvement of grain population by 4%, number of females by 5%, fertility of eggs by 2% was achieved.

  • CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES

    • Irrigation Water Management for Plants in Konya-Şefikcan Public Park of Türkiye

      pg(s) 20-23

      The study was performed to research irrigation systems in Şefikcan Public park at Konya province of Türkiye. In that purpose, applied water by both the sprinkler and drip irrigation systems were determined. In results, seasonal applied water for sprinkler irrigatedgrass and for plants irrigating by drip system were found as 1510 mm and 576 mm, respectively. The reason of less amount of water availability in drip-irrigated area was high amount of water losses associated from leakages in the drip system. In study region, where negative effects of climate change in recent years have been experienced notably, areas with less water consuming trees and tolerant to the water high or moderate stress such as shrubs or woody plants should be widened. Irrigation managers have a great role to play in the desired performance of irrigation so people who are dealing with irrigation in field scales should be practiced about irrigation scheduling. In result, correct irrigation water management is necessarily a prerequisite for obtaining maximal water profitability from unit water application which is vital important for conserving the water resources particularly in water-starved ecologies.

    • Impact of military operations on agricultural soils

      pg(s) 24-26

      The article examines and analyses the impact of armed aggression and hostilities on the soil cover, in particular, damage and destruction of the fertile soil layer as a result of detonation of various explosive objects (missiles, bombs, artillery shells, etc.) and movement of military equipment and its contamination with harmful substances contained in explosives and fuels and lubricants.

    • Influence of irrigation regime and mineral fertilization on the growth index of three varieties of tomatoes grown in glass greenhouses using an ecological and water-saving irrigation technique

      pg(s) 27-29

      To establish the influence of irrigation and mineral regime on the growth index of tomatoes, the irrigation and fertilization schedules of three genotypes of tomatoes grown in an unheated steel and glass greenhouse in an experimental field of MVCRI – Plovdiv, Bulgaria, were examined. Environmentally friendly and water-saving irrigation techniques were used. Different irrigation rates were applied starting from full satisfaction of the crop water requirements to irrigation and with 25% reduction and 25% increase in irrigation rates and three fertilization rates respectively – optimum with 25% reduction and 50% increase.
      After processing the results, the growth index showed an increase in the irrigation rate by 25% above the optimum growth in all three tomato cultivars included in the experiment. At the same time, no such relationship was observed when the fertilization rates were changed. The exception was the cultivar ‘Hayet,’ in which a decrease in fertilizer rate was also associated with a higher growth index, close to that of the optimum fertilizer regime. At the same time, the combination of increasing or decreasing the irrigation rate and fertilization did not have a positive effect on growth.