Innovative method for repair of reinforced concrete water facilities by “wet” shotcreting

    Innovations, Vol. 10 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 79-82

    The report presents the different stages of development and implementation of two similar innovative technical solutions for repair and restoration of defected reinforced-concrete constructions of existing swimming pool and artificial lake using the methods of “wet” shotcreting. In the first case, the object of renovation is a seriously defected outdoor mineral pool of a prestigious hotel in the town of Hissarya. Given the significant leaks of water from the pool in the surrounding area over the years, a specialized technical inspection was initially conducted to determine the causes of defects in the main load-bearing monolithic steel-reinforced concrete construction – walls and bottom slab. An innovative technical solution has been proposed to restore the operational suitability of the pool, based on the possibility of using the existing load-bearing structure as external formwork for a new built-in load-bearing structure of the facility. The proposed solution envisages jointless thickening of the existing walls through additional reinforcement and concrete laying of new high-tech sprayed concrete. The bottom of the pool is being renovated by additional new layer of a hybrid fiber-reinforced jointless concrete slab and machine powerfloated of the finishing surface. A composition of high-tech concrete with the participation of an internal crystallization chemical admixture and shrinkage-compensating one is proposed. A similar solution has been applied for the repair and restoration of the walls and bottom of an artificial lake in West Park, Sofia. Implementation of the project creates a unique art vision of the lake, the rock garden and the surrounding park space. This pilot implementation creates objective preconditions for expanding the range of innovative concrete structural systems, which, in addition to specific functions, are also applicable as opportunities for aestheticizing the urban and park environment.


    Hybrid reinforced concrete with controlled volume deformations for hydrotechnical facilities

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 6, pg(s) 224-227

    The development of hydration processes in cement concrete is associated with the release of significant amounts of heat, which leads to a significant exothermic temperature increasing in the concrete body, especially valid for massive structures. This creates a temperature gradient from the inside of the array to the surface. The latter may be re lated to the development of unacceptable internal stresses, often leading to cracking, defects and reducing the durability of the facility. The report presents the individual stages of the search for an optimal technical solution for the construction of a specific hydro-technical facility – a massive hybrid reinforced trapezoidal wall of a water catchment gorge, in the area of Stara Zagora town. In the context of specified geometric dimensions of the facility, the specific features of the exothermic increase of the temperature in the concrete body as a function of the hydration processes are discussed. A reasonable choice of a specific type of cement is proposed in order to limit the amount of heat released – slag cement CEM III-A 42.5 N with a specific heat of hydration up to 280 J/g. A specific concrete mix design has been proposed, providing a balanced increase in temperature within acceptable limits, preventing cracking, in two possible scenarios – winter and summer outdoor temperature conditions. An additional advantage of the mix is the inclusion in the recipe of fiber-reinforcement and high-tech chemical admixtures – deep internal crystallization and shrinkage-compensating one. Specific calculation data for the kinetics of temperature increasing are presented, and the obtained values are critically evaluated in terms of guaranteed cracks eliminating in the structure.


    Method for repair and recovery of defected industrial reinforced concrete structures through an effective thin repair overlay

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 4, pg(s) 130-133

    The bearing monolithic reinforced construction of “Open Fuel Storage” of SOLVAY SODY AD, Devnya, has been operated for more than 40 years in conditions of extreme stress and external aggressive factors. All this has logically led to the presence of serious corrosion damages. The basic requirements for developing a technical solution for repair and restoration of defect structures retaining walls (assembly type), supporting beams and columns, is the bringing of the technical characteristics of the reinforced concrete structure in its initial (design) or better condition. The report discusses the features of the proposals as the most effective technological method for repair, based on the possibilities for the formless construction of a new special thin repair concrete layer restoring the original cross-section, applied with the methods of “wet” shotcreting. A composition of high -tech concrete with the participation of an internal crystallization chemical admixture and a shrinkage-compensating one suitable for shotcrete is proposed. Specific details have been developed for the renovation of the individual structural elements, as well as optimal technological regulations for the implementat ion of the repair.


    Innovative self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete with compensated shrinkage for machinery steel anchors grouting

    Innovations, Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 3, pg(s) 105-107

    The technical design of ETEM factory (Sofia) requires the specialized conveyor stretching machine to be monolithic fitted by using of system of steel anchor rods with a diameter of 30 and 40 mm and different lengths (600-700 mm), which have to be grouted in pre-left holes with a diameter of about 150 mm in steel-reinforced concrete foundation slab.
    The technically determined anchoring depth determines the total thickness of the anchor layer within 700-800 mm, reaching the “lower edge of the steel support plate”. The company’s produced grouting compositions generally have significant limitations in terms of the maximum allowable thickness of a single layer – usually up to 30-40 mm, which implies multi-stroke implementation to fill the entire anchoring depth.
    Given the above, and mainly, taking into account the conditions of laying and the specifics of the operating mode of the facility, thepossibility to use concrete batching plant produced high-strength self-compacting fiber-reinforced concrete with compensated shrinkage (to some degree of self-stressing) is estimated as an attractive alternative from a technical and financial point of view.
    After the innovative mix design of that an innovative composition of concrete and its casting in real production conditions, specialized laboratory tests were conducted to prove its strength-deformation characteristics – compressive strength, tensile strength in bending, modulus of elastic deformation and shrinkage characteristics. The obtained results prove that the required high technical and technological characteristics of the concrete mix and the hardened concrete are completely achieved precise for the specific application ca se.


    Innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced shotcrete for thin repairing overlays – long term mechanical and structural characteristics

    Innovations, Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 2, pg(s) 66-68

    Solvay Sodi JSC, Devnya, Bulgaria, is the biggest calcinated soda production plant in Europe. It is built in 1974 and it works in three-shift production regime up to present days. The exploitation environment is highly influenced by numerous factors, act ing corrosively on main reinforced concrete structures – active atmospheric processes (in continental type moderate climate), sea water born chlorideaerosols, as well chemical attack caused by carbon dioxide and nitric acid, presented in the air in form of evaporation. The most reinforced concrete structures need urgent remedial measures to restore the load-bearing capacity of its components.
    The “light soda” silos are reinforced concrete facilities (cylindrical shells) which repair has to be executed dur ing continuous production process. The options for repair of these structures and restoration of their load bearing ability by specially designed innovative high-tech hybrid reinforced sprayed concrete, containing capillary crystalline admixture, are discussed in the report.
    It is well known that two basic methods of shotcrete exist – “dry” and “wet” ones.
    The report discusses the main advantages of the specially designed innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced “wet” shotcrete for thin repairing overlays, compared to industrially made “dry” one. By purposeful using of standard and direct physical test methods the basic long -term mechanical and structural characteristics of two composites are presented and discussed. The effectiveness of the proposed “wet” method is based to real possibilities to involve in concrete mix design different chemical innovative admixtures – ultra high range water reducing (HRWRA), shrinkage compensating (ShCA), internal crystallization one, etc. The mechanical properties of “wet” one dramatically exceeded respective ones of the “dry” one. The mechanical test results fully correspond to the respective long -term structural characteristics, obtained by using of X-Ray, DTA, SEM and BET-methods.
    It could be concluded that the innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced “wet” shotcrete is preferable for high-performance thin repairing overlays
    for structural strengthening of damaged concrete structures.


    Innovative design for repair of corrected industrial reinforced concrete structures of light soda silos – Solvay Sodi AD, Devnya

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 5, pg(s) 201-205

    The report discusses the main parameters of a developed design and technological project for the implementation of specific repair and restoration works of built in the mid-1970’s corroded concrete reinforced structures of LIGHT-SODA SILOS – SOLVAY SODI JSC. The purpose of the design is to comply with the requirements for reasonable sufficiency of the additional new steel-reinforced concrete coating (jacked) to realize a lightweight variant of the protective layer against corrosive production factors, atmospheric influences and other specific chemical impacts. The project envisages a technological variant for the implementation of an additional healing thin repair reinforced concrete layer (overlay), based on the specific characteristics of high-tech hybrid fiber-reinforced “wet” sprayed concrete with the participation of specially selected high-range water-reducing and internal-crystallization chemical admixtures. The report provides information on the basic physical-mechanical and technological characteristics of the “wet”-sprayed concrete, as well as the main stages of structural design with specific structural details. According to the static scheme of the facility, it is proposed to specify the allowable loadstate of the structure during the repair works.


    Investigation on the efficiency of internal crystallization chemical admixtures for cement concrete – structural characteristics

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 14 (2020), Issue 3, pg(s) 124-128

    In recent years, the use of internal crystallization chemical admixtures for concrete and mortar to increase their water-tightness and other physical and mechanical characteristics has been of increasing importance in modern construction. These types of chemical modifiers allow for the effective replacement of conventionally performed waterproofing works (membranes, rolls, brushed or sprayed coatings, etc.) by purposefully improving the physical-mechanical characteristics of structural concretes, rendering them, to one degree or another, impermeable to water or/and aggressive agents from different origins. In the specialized world market for such products there are several leading competing companies – producers of internal-crystallization chemical admixtures, which have different activity in Bulgaria. Based on results of purposeful set of structural investigations (DTA, SEM, BET) conducted the purpose of the report is to assist participants  in the construction investment process in understanding the nature, specific characteristics and differences in the performance (effectiveness) of different products in terms of their ability to limit the ingress of water into concrete and reinforced concrete sections, as well as their ability to increase the durability of concrete as the main structural material.


    Innovative hybrid fiber-reinforced shotcrete for thin repairing concrete overlays

    Innovations, Vol. 8 (2020), Issue 2, pg(s) 73-78

    Shotcrete is a technology patented in 1911 by Dr. Carl Akeley – curator at the Field Columbian Museum in, Chicago. The system enables one to place a cement-sand mix or concrete on various surfaces via high pressure and casing by means of special equipment – a shotcrete machine. In fact, this is a method for concrete casting by pressure through a hose and pipe-lines at high velocity into the surface. Two basic methods of shotcrete exist – “dry” and “wet” ones. The report discusses the main technological features of the two methods, analyzing their advantages and disadvantages. Emphasis is placed on the possibilities of rational choice of one of the two varieties of technology depending on multiple factors of complex nature. In a synthesized way are presented their potential for carrying out specialized construction works – repair, reconstruction and strengthening of damaged reinforced concrete constructions, consolidation of rock massifs and slopes, construction of tunnels, swimming pools and other special facilities. The effectiveness of the “wet” method is based to real possibilities to involve in concrete mix design different chemical innovative admixtures – ultra high range water reducing (HRWRA), shrinkage compensating (ShCA), internal crystallization one, etc. Preliminary estimates are presented for their economic expediency under specific conditions.

  • An approach to the estimation of the post-fire state of steel reinforced concrete structures

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 12 (2018), Issue 10, pg(s) 407-411

    The paper proposes a complex assessment of the post-fire state of steel reinforced concrete structures. It covers a combined usage of mechanical tests (core cutting and testing), non-destructive assessment of concrete strength, indirect physical (ultrasonic) methods and direct physical methods (X-ray structural and differential- thermal analyses). The complex analysis of the results enables one to assess the state of the structure and outline means of its strengthening, thus guaranteeing further flawless operation..