Table of Contents


    • Some robotics concepts for the Industry 4.0 applications

      pg(s) 131-134

      The advancement in Information and communication technologies has created conditions for using these technologies in many applications including the industry ones. Robotics has been traditionally present in industries, especially in manufacturing. Development of cyber-physical systems, artificial intelligence, smart sensors, Internet of Things, and other relevant technologies enabled certain transformation in the field of robotics which resulted in new robotics concepts that lead towards smart factories and fulfilment of Industry 4.0 requirements. This paper deals with some of these concepts such as cloud robotics, Internet of Robotics Things and collaborative robotics giving their main characteristics and possibilities of application in Industry 4.0 domain.

    • A predictive maintenance application for band saw machines

      pg(s) 139-142

      Digitalization of production lines is the most important issue in the world in recent years. One of the most important issues of this digitalization for today’s manufacturing enterprises is the need to update maintenance practices and maintenance work processes in production lines with technological developments. The fact that sawing machines are in the first part of the production lines shows that it is of critical importance. In this study, it is aimed to determine the necessary principles for digitizing sawing machines and integrating the predictive maintenance system into the machine. As a result of the evaluation, the necessity of real-time data collection, data analysis and artificial intelligence algorithms for predictive maintenance requirements has been determined.


    • Tensile strength and dimensional variances in parts manufactured by sla 3D printing

      pg(s) 143-149

      With the rise of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, a numerous limitations in conventional manufacturing have been circumvented. Additive manufacturing uses layer-by-layer fabrication of three-dimensional physical models directly from a computeraided design (CAD) model. The CAD design is transformed into horizontal cross-section layers that are stacked together in physical space until the physical model is completed. This process can be used to directly manufacture tools for injection molding or for an y other technology that requires a specific cavity shape to produce a part. This is referred to as Rapid Tooling (RT) and one of the up and coming
      AM technologies is the resin based stereolithography (SLA).
      An increasing number of companies are starting to develop desktop machines that utilize this technology and their low cost an d high speed changes the design workflow. As a printing technology, SLA creates parts with a smooth surface finish which is ideal for applications such as investment casting for developing jewelry or rapid tooling for injection molding.
      The development of rapid tools using SLA usually requires more rigid materials which can withstand higher temperatures and stresses and part models that need to have more accurate dimensions in order for a precise part to be produced from that specific tool. Even though models created by SLA have more isotropic characteristics compared to other 3D printing technologies, there are still some variations linked to the process parameters. This paper covers how orientation of the model on the build plate impacts the pa rt accuracy and the tensile strength of the models. The effects of different post-processing procedures after SLA printing are also taken into consideration, since most resins need to be UV cured after 3D printing in order to achieve maximum mechanical strength.
      This paper gives designers and engineers better understanding on the final properties of the models and the tolerances that have to be taken into consideration when designing parts intended to be manufactured via SLA 3D printing.

    • Selected manufacturing difficulties encountered during setup of machining on CNC multi-axis linear automatic lathe and on CNC multi-spindle turning centers

      pg(s) 150-154

      The article presents the observed manufacturing technology implementation difficulties in workshop practice, resulting from the construction and principles of operation on the DMG’s SPRINT 32/5 CNC linear automatic lathe and on the Mazak’s HQR 150 MSY and QTN 200 MS CNC turn – mill centers, and discusses possible rules for solving the production problems encountered. The article also discusses the principles of dividing the machining process and working steps on multi-spindle CNC turn – mill centers. It is worth to build a system supporting the selection of the sequence of treatments [1], taking into account the frequency of natural vibrations and stiffness obtained after each single machining operations.
      The article shows the method of verification of the selection of the machining planning method on CNC multi-spindle lathes.


    • RFID practices as a prerequisite for smart warehousing

      pg(s) 155-157

      The emergence of Industry 4.0 has led to the development of high-tech solutions that influence a number of related activities. In the field of warehousing management, as an important element of logistics systems, there is also an impact that follows a certain model. Warehousing 4.0 and related developments have to be supported by a number of basic technologies for automatic identification, and technologies that represent intelligent connections to the real world. One of these is the Internet of Things (IoT), which is essentially based on many other solutions, including radiofrequency identification (RFID). The report presents some aspects of the application of RFID in the management of warehousing processes, and also reveals some basic practices of trade and manufacturing enterprises in that field. The study represents the results of a survey focused on warehousing management practices in Bulgaria. The results reveal some fundamental aspects of radiofrequency identification practices as a prerequisite for smart warehousing. The general findings are related to the relatively low and insufficient level of RFID technology usage in the field of warehousing.

    • New integrated system with “circle economy” impact

      pg(s) 158-161

      The current study is focused on the development of integrated system for safety production and storage of hydrogen with a potential impact to the “Circle Economy”. The possibility of methanol production from diverse waste sources determines its key role in the integrated scheme. The originality of the proposed system is the conversion of the waste sources (different agricultural residues, coal tar pitch from low-rank coals, waste motor oils and polyolefin wax) to activated carbons by suitable technologies. Further, these activated carbons are modified with finely dispersed zinc ferrite nanoparticles. The obtained composites are used as catalysts for hydrogen release from methanol by decomposition. The phase composition, surface functionality, texture and structure features of the catalysts are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Low-temperature nitrogen physisorption, Moessbauer spectroscopy and Boehm method. The possibility for the regulation of the catalyst efficiency by simple selection of the activated carbon waste precursor is demonstrated.


    • Changes in the need for digitization during the COVID-19 pandemic

      pg(s) 162-164

      The digitization and automation of production and logistics technology as part of Industry 4.0 bring many positive aspects. They create the conditions for expanding production capacities, enforcing in a competitive environment by increasing productivity and quality of produced products, new opportunities and new customers, replacing people in dangerous operations and events. This paper deals with the changing perception of the need for digitization brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic.

    • Higher Education and COVID 19 in Conditions of Education 4.0

      pg(s) 165-168

      In general, Education 4.0 is an institute of believed that promotes intelligent and smart thinking in education. Education 4.0 promotes education differently, mainly by consuming technology-based tools and resources. This is the most important goal of Education 4.0 for all educational institutions: to encourage students and improve students’ learning outcomes. Higher education in the Fourth Industrial Revolution is an open, rational and dynamic door that can change the thinking of society and upgrade the living standard of the people. The epidemic outbreak of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) has disrupted virtually all aspects of human life, including the tragic loss of many lives around the globe. COVID-19 provides the right opportunity for all universities to try to change the how of learning.

    • Approaches to support learning in today´s workplace

      pg(s) 169-173

      Workplace learning supports acquiring knowledge and practical skills also to use up-to-date equipment by formal or informal methods and means and occurs mostly in the workplace. It contributes to learning of employees, employers and the organization as a whole.
      As a response to COVID-19 disease, workplace learning had to be changed. Companies need to consider Industry 4.0 to stay competitive in the market. Among the challenges regarding the transformation towards Industry 4.0 are requirements to re-skill the staff for the new work environment by using digital technologies. The staff has to adapt to the workplace transformation brought by digitalization, automation and robotic. So, learning at the workplace should be changed supporting cost-effective delivery modes, easy to access leaning resources, and flexible learning environments. This paper aims to present first some existing forms, benefits and requirements of workplace learning as well as factors that are impacting the workplace and can support to drive a new approach to workplace learning. Second, some learn ing methods
      like interdisciplinary experiential ones, reflection as well lifelong learning (LLL) supported by digital technologies are proposed which can be applied within workplace learning.
      Results about existing approaches in published papers, including the author ones, as well as of projects in this field have been used.
      Recherche has been done by the Study Group Lifelong Learning of the IAT, coordinated by the author. Finally, the methods described in this paper for workplace learning have been tested within an Erasmus+ project with participation of the author. The results should help managers, education responsible, employees to rethink their whole approach to workplace learning: the culture, tools, methods by adopting a new, modern understanding of what it means to learn at work by using digital technologies. The results should be tested also within other projects because due to changed situation during the Covid-19 and after it not all proposed approaches have been applied in optimal conditions. The factors driving workplace learning and the combination of described learning forms described in the paper have not been applied in this form until now.