Debye’s temperature θD is the temperature border between areas, CμV(Т) has constant value and, when T<θD, begins to decrease monotonically. θD is the crystal parameter, which allows to calculate the dimensional border between macro- and nanostates. The statement which is found in scientific discussions that θD depends on temperature is incorrect because it contradicts modern crystal-physical theories. The numerical value θD is defined experimentally and is related to the structure of crystals and to the processes taking place in them.
On the basis of modern concepts of condensed matter physics and quantum physics considered the criteria for inclusion ofdispersed particles of different composition, structure, and technological background to nanomodifiers of polymeric, oligomeric and combined matrices. There were proposed an analytical expression for the evaluation of limiting size of the dispersed particles L0, which characterizes the manifestation of a particular energy state – nanostate.There was implemented the analysis of experimental and literature data confirming the adequacy of the calculated value of the size of particles in nanostate obtained using relation L0=230•θD-1/2, where θD – Debye temperature. It is shown that the provision of effective modification of macromolecular matrices necessary and sufficient condition is the presence of dispersed particles of different composition and structure of nanoscale structural fragments of the surface layer, which ensure the implementation of synergies through a combination of energy and mechanical factors in the formation of boundary layers of the optimal structure.
There were considered the physical, structural and morphological prerequisites for the realization of the nanostate phenomenon of dispersed particles of condensed matter of different composition, nature and technology for production. It was shown the role of the size factor in the occurrence of the nanostate phenomenon due to the change of the energy parameters of the surface layers of particles that contribute to their effective modifying effect on the high-molecular matrix. Physical models of the formation of a particular energy state of dispersed particles and metallic and non-metallic materials substrates, characterized by the presence of local areas ("charge-mosaic") with a long relaxation time are proposed.It was considered practical application of the nanostate phenomenon when creating high-strength and wear-resistant materials based on thermoplastic matrices (PA6, PTFE, PET), consistent lubricant and lubricating oils, tribological and protective coatings for friction units and metalwares used in mechanical engineering, automotive and mining engineering. It was made the examples of the effective use of developed nanocomposite materials in practice.