The market of precious metals in the world is studied. The requirements for the standard of gold, silver and platinum ingots are named. Factors influencing the world market of precious metals are revealed. Forms of market organization are described. The dynamics of gold, silver, platinum and palladium production in 2010 – 2019 are given. The tendencies of development of the world market of precious metals and the market of precious metals in Ukraine are named
Vol. 9 (2021), Issue 4
Table of Contents
INNOVATION POLICY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT
The subject of the article is organizational conditions of creating and developing energy clusters in Poland. The aim of energy clusters is the development of distributed energy. They are used to improve local energy security in a way that ensures economic efficiency, as well as in an environmentally friendly way by providing optimal organizational, legal and financial conditions. Energy clu sters also allow the use of local resources and domestic energy potential. The effectiveness of energy clusters depends on the rational and effective use of potential, i.e. locally available energy resources, renewable energy sources, innovation, entrepreneurship in the area of man ufacturing, industry, distribution, as well as management of energy consumption. The aim of the article is to analyze the formal conditions of clusters, in particular the essence of their existence, the tasks that the cluster performs and the role of key cluster participants. As a result of this paper the autor shows the the process of creation and functioning of a energy cluster.
This article analyses the factors affecting the cost of electricity from geothermal power plants. Geothermal power is a capital – intensive technology and the installation costs are highly site sensitive. The costs of geothermal electricity are influenced by the thermal properties of the reservoir, the costs of site exploration and wells drilling, the number and depth of the wells, the power plant type. The choice of the power plant type depends on the properties of the geothermal resource, its temperature, quantity and quality. Being site- and technology-dependent, the installation costs for geothermal power may be as low as 2000 US$/kW and as high as 7000 US$/kW, with the global weighted average at 4000 US$/kW. This wide range of installation costs translates into levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) between 40 US$/MWh for upgrade and expansion projects and 170 US$/MWh for greenfield projects. The global weighted average LCOE is estimated at 70 US$/MWh. Further costs reductions may be accomplished through the research and development of more innovative and low-cost techniques for site exploration and drilling as well as with advanced exploitation methods for geothermal reservoirs.
An Integrated Approach toward a sustainable transport sector using EnergyPLAN model: case of Albaniapg(s) 141-147
In Albania, prior to the 1990’s, the industrial sector was the leading energy consumption sector but actually, the main cause of pollution especially in urban areas, carcinogenic, respiratory and heart diseases come from road transport sector. The environmental situation in Albania after 30 years has undergone major changes due to factors that directly or indirectly influence the degree of its pollution which still remain an unresolved issue. Tirana’s fleet vehicle shares around 35% of the total car fleet registered in Albania. DCI vehicles constitute approximately 71% and the rest petrol powered engine, while the number of EV and other friendly fuel sources is almost zero. The proposed work aims at developing different transport scenarios contributing to the mitigation of GHG in Albania. Using EnergyPLAN model, 3 different scenarios are proposed, considering both most prominent national documents firstly: “Albanian Energy Strategy 2018- 2030” which requires a reduction level of CO2 by 11.5% in 2030 referring to 2006 to attain a RES share of 42% to the TPES and secondly to create a sustainable transport sector as foreseen in “National Sector Strategy for Transport 2016-2020”. This modelling framework analyse the actual transport situation and can address some beneficial values and solution which can be used from policy makers in the country to better assess the potential for a sustainable, environmentally friendly and cost-effective transport sector based on RES.
Impact of tourism income generated from the introduction of innovation on macroeconomic indicators in Turkeypg(s) 148-150
This article presents a calculation model based on the impact of tourism services and income of hotel enterprises, which have a special share in this service, on the gross product, GDP, labor resources, capital investment and working capital through econometric models. It assesses labor resources, GDP, investment in fixed capital and key indicators for the development of the tourism complex of the Republic of Turkey and provides relevant forecasts. In addition, the statistical significance of the model based on the Eviews software package was checked and its suitability for forecasting purposes was determined.
Formaldehyde emission is one of important issues in the wood-based panel industry. Recently, many countries tighten regulations on formaldehyde emissions emitted from wood-based panels due to harmful effect of formaldehyde on the humans. Urea-formaldehyde (UF) resin is the most used synthetic resin as binder in the production of wood-based panels for indoor applications. Disadvantages of UF resin are the formaldehyde emission and low water resistance. UF resin is classified according to the formaldehyde releases, Super E0, E0, E1, and E2, which are from lowest to highest, respectively. Many researchers have focused on the synthetic and natural formaldehyde scavengers for decreasing the formaldehyde emission from the wood-based panels. In this study, recent studies for reducing formaldehyde emission from wood-based boards were reviewed.
The paper presents the possibilities of renovation of worn functional surfaces of roll for continuous steel casting. The cylinder was made of steel 24CrMoV55 – DIN 17240. The lifetime of the continuous casting line roll is limited by the quality of their functional surface. The worn roll is decommissioned and the extent of its damage has been assessed. Cracks are a limiting factor in deciding on its renovation. Renovation of functional surfaces of roller from a diameter of ø 200 mm is realized by technology submerged arc welding (SAW). The article presents the results of research into the quality of newly formed cladding layers. Their quality was evaluated using non-destructive and destructive tests. Based on the performed experiments, it can be stated that the used surface renovation procedure is suitable for the renovation of functional surfaces of continuous steel casting rolls.
The practical applications of the concept of energy and technological compliance in materials science of polymer nanocompositespg(s) 158-163
The analysis of the mechanisms of implementation of the concept of multilevel modification in materials science and technolog y of polymer nanocomposites is carried out. It has been shown that the mechanisms of structure formation at the molecular, supramolecular and interfacial levels in nanocomposite materials based on industrial polymers of the class of polyamides, polyolefins, fluoropla stics modified by components that implement the nanostate phenomenon are based on:
– the formation of adsorption physical bonds in the boundary surface due to the energy interaction of active centers of nanosized particles with various shapes and components of the surface layer, which change the parameters of the rheological, stress-strain and adhesive characteristics of the composites;
– the demonstration of a structuring action by nanosized particles and components of the surface layer of particles, which mani fests itself in the form of supramolecular and interphase ordering, physical compatibilization and non-chain stabilization, which increase the thermodynamic compatibility of the components of polymer-polymer and polymer-oligomer blends and inhibit thermo-oxidative and destructive processes in composites, causing a non-additive increase of the parameters of their stress-strain, adhesive and tribological characteristics.
Blood storage refrigerators are one of the indispensable products of the medical sector. Blood storage refrigerators are produced in various capacities and per different blood components. Although there are commercial refrigerators with various features among our company’s products, we do not have a blood storage refrigerator for the medical sector. Although there are a few companies that manufacture blood storage cabinets in our country, there is no company that fulfills high-security requirements per the ATEX Directive (2014/34/EU). In the field of an industrial kitchen, our various international competitors develop blood storage refrigerators and offer them to the market as a product with high added value compared to industrial refrigerators. Innovative blood storage refrigerator, which meets the safety requirements by the ATEX Directive for the first time in our country with studies based on R&D systematics, is a prototype that can compete and commercialize with international products in the medical field, after testing and evaluating it with its original design and prototype developed.
Our prototype is designed to meet high safety requirements according to the ATEX directive (2014/34/EU). The innovative blood storage refrigerator meets the safety requirements of the ATEX directive. Simulation of the cooling process of the innovative prototype is made together in cooperation with a local university. In contrast to our commercial refrigerators, we meet the refrigeration, hygiene, health, and safety requirements of the original blood storage refrigerator prototype, which meets with all international standards for the medical device sector (EN 60079-0, EN 60079-15, etc.) and ATEX directive (2014/34/EU).
Impact analysis of kinetics and dynamics of SO2 and NOx adsorption from flue gases on the geometry of the column with a fixed carbon bedpg(s) 167-170
The purpose of this research paper is to analyse the impact of kinetics and dynamics of sulphur dioxide (IV) and nitric oxide (II) adsorption from the flue gases on the geometry of a column with a fixed carbon bed. Using the following kinetics equation: pseudo-first and pseudo-second-order, Webber-Morris and Elovich and dynamics Langmuir equation, essential operation parameters for activated carbon made from coconut shell modified by copper have been found. Comparison of two schemes (simultaneous adsorption of SO2 and NO after CO2 adsorption and simultaneous adsorption of SO2, NO and CO2) has been done to determine the adsorption’s time, efficiency and a breakthrough curve. Process scaling has been used to evaluate the chances of adsorption flue gas treatment implementation in industrial production. Bed height has been modelled considering the flow of fuel gases for ½ technical scale and flow of fuel gases for large combustion plants. Match factors values have pointed that the research is more accurate for NOx than SO2 adsorption regardless of the operation scenario. To reduce the height of one column, a battery of columns should be applied, e.g. for NO adsorption in one segment and SO2 adsorption in another segment.
Investigation of rubber granules used in artificial turf systems with FTIR spectroscopy with ATR system and DSCpg(s) 171-173
The purpose of this study was to investigate the structure of recycled tires which are used in artificial turf/ grass as infi ll materials. One of the most important issues, especially in Albania is proving that these materials are recycled. In this paper it is presented the FTR with ATR system methods analyses. That will provide info regarding the combining material in rubber granules, for the investigation of their structure, it was used the spectroscopy method, with vibration infrared and Fourier FTIR transformation equipped with ATR system, a method which enables analysis of samples of thick surface, without any prior preparation. The scanning of samples was done with wavelength from 4000-400 cm-1. At the same time was possible to see the changes in the micro-structure of the tires by using the Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses.