The paper presents the results of research focused on the use of innovative processes in the production of composite materials. The experimental work was focused on the use of Vacuum Bag Molding technology in the production of the prototype of the Shell Ecomarathon formula. The car body was designed with 3D modeling and optimized with airflow simulation. Carbon fibers have been used to reduce the vehicle’s weight. Some complementary parts were produced using 3D printing.
Trans Motauto World
Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 3
Table of Contents
TRANSPORT TECHNICS. INVESTIGATION OF ELEMENTS. RELIABILITY
In the paper, fuzzy logic is used to simulate active suspension control of a one-half-car model. Velocity and acceleration of the front and rear wheels and undercarriage velocity above the wheels are taken as input data of the fuzzy logic controller. Active forces improving vehicle driving, ride comfort and handling properties are considered to be the controller outputs. The controller design is proposed to minimize chassis and wheels deflection (sky-hook concept) when uneven road surfaces, pavement points, etc. are acting on tires of the running car. As a result, a comparison of an active suspension fuzzy control and a spring/damper passive suspension is shown using MATLAB simulations.
Worldwide test laboratories use complex equipment with high level of automated testing processes due to the larger quantity of samples processed. In order to facilitate the testing of products in domestic, accredited test laboratories, the Center for IC Engine and Vehicles of Vinca Institute developed a testing bench adapted to requirements of the domestic producers. This article presents an examination device designed for cornering fatigue testing of wheels in laboratory conditions. Furthermore, this testing bench allows testing of a wide range of elements and systems associated with the wheel, e.g. hubs, bearings, screw connectors, axles etc. Upon construction, the test bench was evaluated through a number of tests of various wheel specimens. The obtained results confirm the pertinence of this method in the development of the vehicle suspension systems.
The main trend in considering the interaction of the railway track and the rolling stock is the studying of the parameters of the rigidity of the interaction. For the study, a model of the track design, described using the basic concepts of the theory of elasticity and the propagation of elastic waves was developed. The study of the peculiarities of the interaction of the rolling stock and the track, taking into account the elastic properties of the base, allows to expand the possibilities of solving the problems of ensuring their functionally safe operation with a certain level of operational efficiency.
TRANSPORT. SAFETY AND ECOLOGY. LOGISTICS AND MANAGEMENT
It is determined that civil aviation in Ukraine has a number of problems that are the result of a chronic crisis in the deep fields of the industry. It is revealed that the “open sky” policy acts as an incentive to increase competition. The analysis of dynamics of the air transportation market of Ukraine is carried out. The decline in demand for air transportation in Ukraine is considered as a continuation of the negative trends in the national economy. The analysis of the Ukrainian airlines market has showed that the share of 4 leading airlines in the total volume of passenger traffic was almost 93 %. Regular flights between Ukraine and rest of the world were carried out by 9 domestic airlines (to 39 countries of the world) and 35 foreign airlines from 29 countries of the world. The ratio between international and domestic transportations of Ukrainian carriers during the year amounted to 85 % and 15 % in favor of international ones. It was found out that leading aviation carriers do not meet the modern requirements of the world aviation community. The study of the air transportation market in relation to specialization by types of business has revealed that nine major types of air carriers were formed. Functioning of Low Cost business model on the market provides a significant change in the structure of aviation. The main specific features of the stages of development of Low Cost business-model airlines are determined. The analysis of the situation on the air transport market was conducted on the basis of PEST-analysis. Measures that make it possible to intensify the process of development of the market of aviation transportations are listed: renewal of the airport infrastructure; establishment of high technical standards for airplanes and air services; security enhancement; modernization of air traffic control procedures; updating sectoral legislation. The prospects for the development of the air transport market of Ukraine are the creation of new organizational forms that fully meet the requirements of the market. Consolidation can occur in several areas: the formation of a national carrier-flagship, merger with foreign companies or consolidation with domestic players in the market.
Demographic change is one of main problems in the rural areas of the Central Europe region. Young and active people are moving to bigger towns and cities due to the lack of attractive opportunities and older and less educated people usually remain at the countryside. To attract economically active group of people to rural areas, appropriate public services must be offered there. Public transport offer is of high importance, since its high quality can improve quality of life, better reachability and can also attract more tourists to visit area. The European project RUMOBIL funded by Program Interreg Central Europe (Project number CE55) deals with various options for solving the problem of public transport service in the countryside.
OPERATING LONG DISTANCE RAIL TRANSPORT ON BRATISLAVA – BANSKA BYSTRICA LINE BY PRIVATE RAILWAY UNDERTAKINGpg(s) 123-126
The competition between operators in the public tender in ordering process of train paths in long-distance rail passenger transport is very significant. The partial liberalisation of the rail market in the European Union was already underway in 2010, when all European railway companies with the necessary licenses gained access to railway infrastructure. One of the current objectives of the common transport policy laid down in The fourth railway package is to open up the market for national rail passenger services in all Member States from 2019.In 2009, the EU Regulation No. 1370/2007 came into force, which sets out the selection procedures for the award of contracts in public rail transport. There are two forms of contracts for transport services in the public interest, either by tendering the competition for traffic performance, or by directly entering the selected railway company. The aim of this article is to analyse steps of the Slovak government in the first public tenders to provide subsidized transport of a selected line and to determine conditions for this tender. This is a significant moment in the railway market in the Slovak Republic, preparing the opening up of the market for domestic long-distance passenger rail transport.
Quality has a fundamental influence to the services in passenger transport. The main objective of transport is to satisfy customers’ (passengers’) requirements on the qualitative, flexible, fast and safe carriage of people and goods. Organisers of transport (public authority), providers of transport services and their customers have a different view on the perception of quality. This fact is influenced by unsystematic assessment to the quality measurement as well as by ignorance of the interaction of the transportation the peoples with the transport system. A basic element of transport service is the movement of the rolling stock with the passenger or goods from the start to end destination. In this point of the technological process of transport, the main bearer of the quality of transport services are the vehicles and the transport infrastructure. From the perspective of the vehicle, its operation-technical and utility properties are very important. From the perspective of transport infrastructure, the operating ratios and conditions are important. Due to the content of the quality concept it is not possible to focus only on the interaction of carriage and transport infrastructure. The paper is focussed on the quality evaluation of performance in regional passenger rail transport in relation to other modes of public transport. Hereby it is necessary to know the perception of quality services as well its value for the client (passenger). Consequently it is needed to set a permanent process of quality evaluation of the provided transport services. The paper is based on the premise that the customer interests present the public ordering body (authority) of the public transportation services.
Ports constitute one of the most important nodes of transport networks, and they represent the border control points and the freight handling points, the administrative service centers, place of the implementation of trade procedures, as well as the link connecting the land and maritime routes. The functioning of the international transport corridor depends to a large extent on the ports and maritime transport efficiency.
Despite significant investments, the operations of port and ships are mostly non-standard, which hinders the development of the maritime transport sector. However, infrastructure is not the major obstacle to maritime transport development. National regulatory policy should be revised in keeping with the growing popularity of the concept of economic globalization and supply network. It is necessary to reform the relevant roles of the private sector and the State, where the latter is represented by stateowned companies and state monopolies.
In the study, the flow pattern due to the interaction between a high-speed train and the tunnel at the model scale was analyzed. Six different tunnel entry geometries were used variably for a single train speed. The most important issues as a condition of comfort in high speed trains are noise and vibration. In particular, flow-induced noise is triggered by pressure changes in the flow. For each geometry, the pressure changes at the tunnel entrance and at the tunnel exit are plotted with depending on time. As a result, the least amount of pressure change was found in the tunnel entrance model with openings in the side walls.
VEHICLE ENGINES. APPLICATION OF FUELS TYPES. EFFICIENCY
LIQUID FUEL TEMPERATURE, PRESSURE AND INJECTION RATE INFLUENCE ON INJECTOR NOZZLE REYNOLDS NUMBER AND CONTRACTION COEFFICIENTpg(s) 138-141
The influences of liquid fuel temperature, pressure and injection rate on fuel contraction coefficient and Reynolds number during a fuel injection were investigated in this paper. Nozzle geometry parameters remained constant during the whole numerical analysis. Calculations were performed with a standard diesel fuel D2. Increase in liquid fuel temperature cause increase in fuel contraction coefficient. Fuel temperature increase resulted in a slight increase in contraction coefficient at low fuel pressures, while at high fuel pressures increase in fuel temperature causes significant increase in fuel contraction coefficient. Increase of fuel pressure resulted in a decrease in liquid fuel contraction coefficient, for every fuel injection rate and for every fuel temperature. Reynolds number increases with an increase in fuel temperature and also with an increase in fuel injection rate. The main goal of presented analysis is to be usable not only for one fuel injector and its nozzles, but for a large number of the fuel injectors and for many liquid fuels.
The article deals with the effects of butanol-diesel fuel blends on performance and exhaust emissions of a turbocharged, CRDI 1154HP (85 kW) diesel engine. Load characteristics were taken when running with normal diesel fuel and n-butanol-diesel fuel blends DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4 possessing 1wt%, 2wt%, 3wt%, and 4wt% of fuel-oxygen at speeds of 1800 and 2500 rpm. The auto-ignition delay increased by 15.5%, burn angle MBF 50 and the combustion ended 7.6% and 6.5% earlier in the cycle, bsfc and engine efficiency were 2.8% and 1.9% higher when using fuel blend DB4 than the respective values of 17.40, 20.90 and 61.20 CADs, 234.4 g/kWh and 0.361 a fully loaded (100%) straight diesel develops at speed of 2500 rpm. The NOx, CO, THC emissions, and smoke decreased by 5.1%, 29.5%, 3.7 times, and 48.1% against the respective values of 1020 ppm, 563 ppm, 260 ppm, and 12.9% a straight diesel develops under these test conditions.
The urgency of the issue under consideration is stipulated by large-scale international research and is confirmed by the Russian Federation Government Decree No. 1-P of 08.01.2009 “Main Directions of State Policy in the Sphere of Energy Efficiency Improvement on the Basis of Using Renewable Energy Sources for the Period to 2020” and the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation from July 7, 2011 № 899 on priority directions of development of science, technology and technics in the Russian Federation.
According to the analytical agency “AUTOSTAT”, as of 2017 there are 3.7. million of trucks in the Russian Federation, of which the ecological standards “Euro-4” (and above) correspond only 14%, and annually are used more than 20 million tons for freight transport, which in the amount of processing oil to diesel gas oil is more than 70 million tons of diesel gas oil . From the above, it can be concluded that in order to solve the fuel issue and preserve the environment, it is necessary to study the performance of the diesel engine using diesel composite fuel and transfer of transport to alternative fuels.
As a raw material for the production of alternative fuels is attractive biomass, such as oilseeds and waste from processing plants.
As a result of the growing demand for ricinic oil by industry, it is necessary to study its application as a component for the production of diesel composite fuel.
However, the viscosity of ricinic oil is higher than that of diesel gas oil, so it can only be used as an additive to low-viscosity components. As a result of the addition of diesel fuel and bioethanol to ricinic oil, with preliminary preparation, decreases viscosity and are improved low-temperature properties. This mixture can be suitable for use on transport-technological machines, the point of view of qualitative spraying in areas with a moderate climate.
Based on the thermal calculation of the engine by the methods of Prokopenko R.M., Khorosh A.I., Bashirova R.M., are determined the parameters of the working cycle of the engine D-240 and are presented below the dependences on the concentrations of the components.
The article compares the obtained results with the indicators of traditional diesel gas oil.