Table of Contents



    • Towards to farms with zero carbon-waste-and water footprint – Part I

      pg(s) 11-16

      Agriculture is responsible for large part of the land use and the agricultural productivity increases significantly during the last decades. Important past is the mechanization which leads to a dramatic rise of labour productivity. Improved production techniques, intensive use of fertilizers and pesticides and progress of plant breeding helped to increase the yields. However, excesses use of these inputs has resulted in a variety of problems, such as eutrophication and toxicity. Agricultural production is the main source of several major emissions. Examples are ammonia (NO3). More than 90% comes from agricultural sectors, methane (CH4) and nitrate (NO3-). For these reasons, the study of the agricultural production systems (APS) and their influence on the environment is a major priority. Particularly apple
      and apple juice production company was study to find the optimum solution for reduction of carbon emission.

    • Towards to farms with zero carbon-waste-and water footprint – Part II Case study: Life cycle assessment of apples production technology at a farm level

      pg(s) 17-20

      A Carbon Footprint (CF) is defined as the total emissions of greenhouse gases caused directly and indirectly by an individual, event, organization or product,expressed as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2 eqv). The objective of this case study is to provide examples of strategies for low footprint of Apple Production and Apple Processing as well as best practices and guidance on the use of equipment for planting, fertilizing and harvesting for specific crops like apple orchards. It covers the general principles and provides guidance for these specific areas.

    • Exploration of the possibility for using animal manure as alternative fuel in pig farm

      pg(s) 21-23

      The increasing demand for local products is forcing farmers to expand their production, which also increases the waste generated by the animal husbandry process. The utilization of organic waste from livestock farms is a serious task for farmers, and they need to look for alternative methods of treatment. In this paper, we consider the possibility of applying sludge from a pigs farm for fattening. Samples of dried to room humidity sludge taken from a pig manure metal lagoon were examined. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the prospect of sludge as an alternative fuel for the pig farm. A thermogravimetric (TD) and differential thermal (DTG) analysis method was used to investigate the sediment. These methods of analysis were used because of the wide range of information provided and the possibility of qualitative and quantitative analysis. The types of phase transitions in the processes of heating and cooling, the temperature interval, the time for their flow and the amount of heat absorbed or released are investigated

    • Exploring New TechnologySolutions for the conditions of Eutric/ Haplic Vertisols and Gleyic-Chromic Luvisols

      pg(s) 24-30

      Determining the sustainability of agricultural production are agro-technical activities, as the main units in any technology. A study has been carried out to evaluate the impact of crop treatment systems, mineral fertilization and integrated weed control on soil and climatic conditions in the Sofia region.
      It has been found that less intensive weeding with annual and perennial weeds is observed when using a more intensive treatment system compared to the reduced treatment option. The number of weeds per unit area is increasing in the non-fertilizing variants, but their mass is lower than the fertilizers. Deeper soil tillage contributes to maintaining the values of the physical parameters (humidity, bulk density and soil hardness) in a more favorable range. Fertilization has the most significant effect on yields during the three years of the experiment.

    • Studies to establish evapotranspiration and biophysical ratios of raspberries grown in drip irrigation

      pg(s) 30-35

      To establish the totals and average daily evapotranspiration of raspberry under the soil and climate conditions in the village of Chelopechene, near Sofia city research was conducted with drip irrigation of plantations with variety “Lyulin” adopting varying irrigation schedules – from fully meeting the daily crop water requirements to reduced depths with 20% and 40%.
      The meteorological conditions during the study period have been influenced by the totals and average daily On average, during the research period the magnitude of the total evapotranspiration for the vegetation period of the raspberry is 482 mm, with the highest values reaching 592 mm in the dry 2000.
      For the needs of the practice and the design are calculated also the ten-day values of the biophysical coefficient Z and kb, which depend on the biological characteristics of the culture and the meteorological factors.

    • Sunflower irrigation in conditions of water deficit

      pg(s) 36-38

      An analysis has been made of the research work to determine the impact of water deficit on the quantity and quality of sunflower production. Studies have also taken into account the more frequent drought in the last decade – soil and atmospheric. Research shows that its good drought resilience allows it to be grown under irrigation conditions, but is sensitive to severe droughts, especially in the critical stages of development which leads to poor quality and drastic decrease in yield, and in some years to the lack of yields. The results show that sunflower irrigation has a large reserve for obtaining additional yield, which has been established through experiments in different parts of the country. The increase in irrigation is about 30-40%, and critical for water stress is the period of 20 days before and 20 days after flowering.

    • Evaluation of diatom taxa in Alpin fresh water, Valbona River

      pg(s) 39-41

      The aim of this study is to determine the species of different diatoms genius and to evaluate the ecology status of the river. Samples were collected along the Valbona River during 2015 period. Diatoms have proven to be powerful indicators of environmental conditions with changes in species assemblages providing information on changes in environmental conditions. Many species are identified and the dominant taxa were: Diatoma vulgaris, Diatoma ehrenbergii, Diatoma mesodon, Meridion circulare, Fragilaria arcus, Fragilaria capucina, Cocconeis placentula, Cymbella affinis, Gomphonema tergestinum, Navicula tripunctata etc. Diatom communities can be described by their species composition and diversity. Based on the type of taxa and the ecological values of species, Valbona river belong to oligo-saprobic state.

    • Negative factors affecting the sanitary status of tree plants and effective approaches to their research

      pg(s) 42-45

      In the territories of forest, landscape gardening and municipal zones, both Ukraine and the whole world, there is a steady negative tendency for tree drying out. This process may lead to the complete destruction of trees in the future. The reasons for this fact are established, namely: winter damage, excess (or lack) of moisture, mechanical damage, as well as damaged by pests and diseases. As a result of the analysis the main negative factors, that affect the sanitary status of tree plants was defined. Among all the factors, climatic factors have the greatest harm to the tree plants (for example, an increase in the average annual water temperature leads to favorable breeding conditions for harmful insects). Negative factors of human influence (anthropogenic and technogenic impact) lead to pollution of air, soil and groundwater. The main disadvantages of modern methods and means of research, control and prevention of the sanitary condition of trees, and the expediency of developing new approaches for conducting an integrated comprehensive study of causes and factors, affecting the state of tree plants, are shown.