• Methodology and results of experimental studies of combined unit for sugar beet tops harvesting on the basis of a row-crop tractor

    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 64 (2018), Issue 5, pg(s) 158-161

    On the basis of an integrated wheel-type tractor (traction class 3.0), there was created the new combined machine and tractor unit carried out a continuous flat cutting of the sugar beet tops with a front mounted sugar beet tops cutting machine. To carry out this field experimental studies, a program and methodology was developed based on measurements of the remains of the tops on the heads of root crops after passing through the aggregate at a given rate of translational motion, the height of the installation of its rotary cutting mechanism above the level of the soil surface and the frequency of its rotation. The results of the study were statistically processed on a personal computer using regression and correlation analysis methods. Based on the developed methodology of the full-factor experiment, empirical mathematical models were constructed in the form of regression equations for the process of cutting the tops of sugar beet. According to the results of these calculations, it was found that the speed of the forward movement of the sugar beet tops cutting aggregate exerts the greatest influence on the mass of the remains of the tops on the spherical surfaces of the root heads, after a continuous main cut. In a lesser extent, this process is influenced by the rotational speed of the rotor of the sugar beet tops cutting machine and the height of the rotor installation above the soil surface level by means of two pneumatic copying wheels. According to the results of experimental studies, it has been established that the rational design and technological parameters of the process for harvesting sugar beet tops by a front mounted sugar beet tops harvesting  machine with a rotary cutting apparatus is its rotation frequency equal to 960 rpm, the speed of the aggregate should not exceed 2.0 m.s-1, and the height of the rotor installation should be as low as possible, not less than 0.02 m.



    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 3 (2018), Issue 4, pg(s) 165-168

    In the paper, the current situation in the production of crop growing by-products in Ukraine is examined. The potential output of crop growing by-products in various regions of Ukraine, part of which could be allocated for energy production, is determined. The fuel properties of the main types of biomass are presented. The state-of-the-art approaches to the use of straw and plant residues in agriculture are analysed. The possible ways of utilising straw and plant residues in crop growing for maintaining and regenerating the fertility of soils, in livestock husbandry as bedding and a supplement to coarse fodders and in heat power industry as an energy source for the production of thermal power are established. The state-of-the-art technologies and machinery for the rational use of straw and plant residues are described. The need for additional research into what plant residues and what quantities of them can be reasonably used for the fertilisation of soils, taking into account the saturation of the crop rotation systems with cereal crops, the limitation of the phytopathogenic load on grain varieties, the development of weeds, the management of the soil’s nitrogen status under different soil and climate conditions.



    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 63 (2017), Issue 4, pg(s) 140-142

    Modern technologies of harvesting sugar beet tops provide solid preliminary cutting and collecting its harvest at the increased altitude and subsequent additional root crops heads cleaning from tops residues on a root. This last operation also defines quality of root crops of beet before their digging up. Objective of this research is improvement quality of root crops heads cleaning from tops remains, by development of interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a spherical surface of root crop head. In the theoretical study were used methods of modeling, higher mathematics and theoretical mechanics, as well as programming and carrying out numerical calculations on the PC. As a result of the conducted theoretical research the interaction theory of flexible cleaning blade with a root crop head surface in the course of its cleaning from tops remains is developed. On the basis of the received differential equations of blade movement which is pivotally mounted on the drive shaft with a horizontal axis of rotation, new mathematical dependences which justify basic parameters of this technology process are given.


    Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources, Vol. 62 (2016), Issue 2, pg(s) 10-12

    Nowadays topper machines which cut beet tops without copying root heads via rotary topper and only after this heads are cuts individually by passive knife widely used in the world. However, with using this topping method significantly increases sugar-bearing plant material losses. Taking into account that sugar beet tops is effective raw material for receiving biogas, its collecting without loss is actual beet industry problem. However, when cutting tops from sugar beet heads with individual copying and collecting tops from each root crop head the topper productivity is significantly reduced, the design of the topping device becomes complicated, operational expenses considerably increase. Methods of mathematical modeling, programming and calculations on PC are used in the course of research. As a result of the conducted research the mathematical model of a cut without individual copying of root crop heads as well as algorithm are developed. This algorithm enables to determine the rational height of installation of the cutting device over the level of soil surface that in this turn provides minimum losses of beet tops. Dependence of sugar-bearing plant material losses and residues of beet tops on cut height without individual copying of root crops heads was experimentally defined. Comparison with theoretical calculations showed that in the range of working heights of a cut of 20-60 mm deviation does not exceed 1%.