Table of Contents


    • Isentropic analysis of entire intermediate pressure steam turbine cylinder and cylinder segments

      pg(s) 3-6

      In this paper is performed an isentropic analysis of the entire Intermediate Pressure Cylinder (IPC) and all of his four Segments. Obtained results show that the first Segment (Seg. 1) is the dominant mechanical power producer of all Segments and it produces 16816.70 kW of mechanical power in the real (polytropic) expansion process. Analyzed IPC produces more than half mechanical power of the entire turbine in which he operates (in real expansion process IPC produces mechanical power equal to 58499.48 kW). Isentropic loss and isentropic efficiency of IPC Segments are reverse proportional – Seg. 3 which has the highest isentropic loss simultaneously has the lowest isentropic efficiency (equal to 82.44%), while Seg. 4 which has the lowest isentropic loss has the highest isentropic efficiency (equal to 87.26%). Entire IPC has an isentropic efficiency equal to 87.78%. Any improvements and modifications which can potentially be performed in the observed IPC should firstly be based on the turbine stages mounted inside Seg. 3.


    • Academic entrepreneurship roadmap as an innovative model at university level

      pg(s) 7-10

      The paper presents the conceptual framework of an international project focused on the development of entrepreneurship culture at academic level. Academic entrepreneurship is seen as a means of commercialization, which is the transformation of knowledge into products, processes, and organization and their contribution to economic growth and innovation. In this regard the project is aimed to explore hidden strengths of academic entrepreneurship in detail and in various aspects oriented to students, academic staff, and businesspeople. The project will suggest training materials in line with the changes in the economic environment in recent years to create both entrepreneurial culture and skills to start own business under the supervision by academic entrepreneurs.

    • Stock management strategy

      pg(s) 11-13

      The set of methods and rules in the process of providing raw materials can be considered a strategy for stock management. Each strategy is associated with specific and expected costs. Still, optimally, we can call that strategy that, under the given conditions, leads to minimal expenses related to the material provision of the studied system. Part of the stock management process is establishing the timing of the deliveries, the necessary volumes and the distribution of the incoming lots to the various warehouses and units. The search for optimal strategies is subject to the theory of optimal stock management. This makes it possible to release significant funds frozen in the form of stocks, which leads to increased efficiency of the material resources used. The optimal inventory management strategy and flexibility also lead to improved production processes and reduced and excluded possible interruptions caused by lack or shortage of materials. The stock management process influences the planning, forecasting, and fulfilment of production needs and orders.
      The elements of the business system described so far, in which raw materials, materials and their stocks have a significant impact, show the importance of the stock management strategy of each economic unit. That the chosen and functioning system is optimal is a substantial part of the overall success in any enterprise or other form of business process implementation.

    • The natural carbon sinks in the fight against climate change

      pg(s) 14-17

      Experts’ climate models predict a continued trend in global warming over the coming decades. They present climate change as a major challenge to modern society with a clear and complex nature in various aspects – ecological, social, technological, economic and political. The EU’s response to the challenges of climate change and the environment is contained in the Union’s strategic goals and objectives for 2030 with a horizon of 2050, agreed in the Green Deal and the Digital Compass of the European Union.
      The purpose of this report is to present the state of environmental indicators for Bulgaria and the region and the role of natural carbon sinks for their improvement.

    • Leadership as an imperative of the motivation: research design

      pg(s) 18-21

      The paper presents a methodology focused on the leadership style assessment based on exact characteristics of the business environment and their influence on the employees’ motivation. The conceptual framework is to explore the correlation between the applied leadership style, the level of uncertainty of the external environment, and the motivational level of the followers. In this regard, the paper aims to find dependencies among the leadership style and its behavioral application towards the level of motivation. Based on this research design, it is possible for the managers to implement a specific approach that will increase the employees’ motivational level in a concrete level of uncertainty of the business environment. The application of the methodological conditions in organizations from different industries can be beneficial for managers to smooth out an effective and cohesive team, which together overcomes threats from the external environment and the continuous confrontation with new crisis situations.

    • Fire safety during electric vehicles transportation by sea

      pg(s) 22-25

      More that 80% of world trade is transported by sea. Ships are the primary means of transporting cars around the world as well. Most often, this is done with specialized ships called Ro-Ro (Roll on-Roll off), and sometimes, when it comes to individual units, in containers. One of the main concerns during such transportation is the fire safety of the ships. At the same time automotive technology is changing, electric powered vehicles are increasingly displacing internal combustion engines. In the last decade, the production of electric and hybrid cars has grown significantly, which has also led to an increase in the volume of their transportation. However, this also brought a new challenge – the risk of fire caused by their batteries malfunctioning. The danger of fire associated with lithium-ion batteries is well known and there have been quite a few such cases in recent years. The idea of this study is to highlight the conditions of carriage, the fire safety measures on board the ships, as well as the ways of fighting a possible fire.

    • Situational analysis of rail freight transport sector in the Republic of Bulgaria and the potential of implementing methods and good practices for overall operational improvement

      pg(s) 26-29

      Situational awareness is of fundamental importance when one is faced with the need to make adequate decisions regarding increasing performance or to make structural reforms in a certain field. Rail cargo transport is of paramount importance for both the increasing demand for intermodal transport and greener inland transportation. The Republic of Bulgaria has a unique geographical location which offers certain opportunities and limitations regarding the development and maintaining a strong and efficient transport sector. The purpose of this paper is to give the reader a snapshot of the current situation in the sector and to outline some good practices implemented by some world leaders in the rail transport sector which can be applied domestically to increase overall performance.


    • Solving or Stagnating a Decades Long Problem? U.S. policy towards the Israeli – Palestinian conflict under President Biden

      pg(s) 30-35

      The Middle East has been of primary interest for the following American presidents and administrations since the mid-20th Century. The Israeli Palestinian conflict is an indisputable element of the Middle East and is nearly as long as American strategic interest in the region. Shaping American policy towards the Israeli Palestinian conflict has been of different importance to U.S. Presidents, but the twostate solution has predominantly dominated as a viable solution, despite the fact that Israel has been favored. Donald Trump had a different approach towards the actors of the conflict and the possible solution, in action, discontinuing efforts towards the two-state solution. The current U.S. President, Joe Biden, in his approach towards Israel and Palestine is loyal towards the more traditional American stance. This paper, based on the study of key documents, presents a comparative analysis of the former and present U.S. Presidents, showing how a contemporary, more even-handed, approach, building civil societies, and engaging regional players, might result in future peace between Israel and Palestine.

    • Social capital and its association with good local governance in Republic of North Macedonia

      pg(s) 36-39

      Numerous studies show that high levels of social capital are associated with higher level of good governance in societies around the world. However, because of different definitions and approaches for measurement of social capital, a lot of papers have included only one variable of measure or not in-depth measurement of social capital. Also, there is a huge deficiency of research for social capital and its relation with good governance in North Macedonia. Therefore, it is very important to make national analysis, also because of the cultural differences between the countries that can produce different conclusions. Also, it is not known which indicators of the broad concept of social capital are associated with good governance.
      Social capital is a complex multidimensional concept without unified definition. One easy way to explain the social capital is through benefits that arise from social activity of one individual, or social capital is related to the types and the quality of human networks. Among many distinctions of social capital are distinctions of structural, relational and cognitive social capital and distinction based on relationships such as strong, weak, vertical, horizontal, bonding, bridging or linking. In this paper, we will take the distinction of structural and cognitive social capital on individual level. This paper will examine the association between different types of individual structural social capital and individual cognitive social capital with level of perceived effectiveness of good local governance variables on municipalities level. Thus, paper hypothesis is: structural and cognitive dimensions of social capital are positively associated with good local governance. Data will be gathered through a questionnaire that will be delivered online (e-mail, social platforms, etc.) to residents of minimum 20% of the municipalities in Republic of North Macedonia. Analysis of the data will be through Ordinary Least Square regression to model good governance measures as a function of different proxies of structural and cognitive social capital, and controlling variables.
      The goal of the paper will be to show the association of good local governance and different dimensions of individual social capital.