In the years 2013-2018 at Agro-Land farm at Śmielin (53°09′04.0″N; 17°29′10.7″E; 93,8 m a.s.l.), Poland, the strip-till technology (soil strip loosening, fertilizer application and seed sowing in one pass hybrid machine Mzuri Pro-Til, Mzuri Ltd.) was compared with plough tillage and ploughless tillage, after which the seedbed was prepared, fertilizers were applied and then sowing was performed. After 5 years of using the strip-till technology, in comparison with plough and ploughless cultivation, the content of: organic carbon, available forms of macroelements, the share of water stability soil aggregates, as well as the number of: total bacteria, total fungi, earthworms increased in the top layer of the soil.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 6
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
Main features of water region of Umbric Albeluvisols Abruptic and Gleyic Albeluvisols Abruptic displaying different rate in years with different moisturizing were studied. Two layers of surface water appear in soils in spring and fall, hence, the fields are decreased or crops die. Drainage is shown to eliminate surface water. Plastic drainage causes more intensive drainage effect than ceramic trench drainage in wet years. Drainage leads to an increase in specific surface area, total soil porosity, number of water stable aggregates, including those in the lower horizons, distribution of forms of iron compounds. Favorable conditions for the cultivation of crops, especially for grain crops, are formed on drained soils of the Nonchernozem region. Drainage exerted effect on the fractional and chemical composition and lignin of soils and Fe-Mn concretions.
Environmental factors, including temperature and air humidity, undoubtedly affect the life processes of plants, but in the black alder an additional factor responsible for the tree activity is the seasonal variability of soil moisture. In the conducted research, the activity of the tree, expressed as the conductivity measured in Hz, was seven times lower, in the period when the water level in 2018 was high, than in the analogous period in 2019, when the level of groundwater was low. In the period from January 1 to May 31, 2018, the maximum value of conductivity reached 601 Hz, while in the analogous period of 2019, 4229 Hz. Differences in the soil moisture also affected the length of the dormancy period of the tree, which in the first observation season lasted from November 2017 to April 2018, while at the turn of 2018 and 2019, the tree activity stopped for just a few days when air temperature dropped on January 23, 2019 to -9.8 oC.
Activated carbon obtaining from various raw material / via chemical activation for the purpose of environmental purification – overvewpg(s) 204-206
The activated carbons are among the chemical products widely used in the industry and life. Thanks to their unique combination of adsorption and electric chemical properties related to their strongly developed specific surface, porous texture and chemical nature of the surface, they have not lost their attractiveness and application for more than 150 years. The use of various types of carbon adsorbents for solution discoloration, air deodorization, for medical and cosmetic purposes, has been known for centuries. Their appearance happens to be the natural development of one of the most ancient technologies – for obtaining wooden coals and is based on the increase of
the public consumption.
The research of the rain intensity adaptation to the conditions of hydrophysical characteristics of the soil for ecological and economical improvement of the irrigative equipmentpg(s) 207-208
The article presents the result of the research on the possibility of using in the watering process the effect of swallowing and cracking of chernozem soils depending on their humidity. Watering installations where the rain intensity is variable or constant but higher than Kf = const lead to an essential reduction of working time in position, since in this case the soil soaking process also includes the infiltration phase.
Water losses would be less because in this case the soil soaking process also includes the infiltration phase in which, depending on its initial humidity, the soil can incorporate essential water volumes. Consequently, it is possible to improve the ecological and economic efficiency of the irrigation technique by adapting the intensity of the rain to the dynamics of the process of water movement in the soil during the watering process
Agroforestry has the potential to provide a broad range of ecosystem services including maintenance and improvement of soil and water quality. Nevertheless, there is a lack of supporting policies both at national and at European level. Moreover, although tree cover density on agricultural land is surprisingly high in the Baltic States, agroforestry is seldom immediately associated with boreal and hemiboreal regions. Two agroforestry systems corresponding best to the farming traditions in Latvia are short rotation coppices grown on agricultural land and silvopastoral systems. In Latvia, the first experimental area of agroforestry systems of fast growing tree species (Populus spp., Salix spp. etc.) and legumes or perennial grasses was established in 2011. To promote the implementation of bioeconomy principles, municipal waste (wastewater sludge) and renewable energy by-products (wood ash and digestate) were applied as fertilizers to promote increase of yield. Within the study, not only benefits of agroforestry systems were evaluated but also ecological risks associated with the application of fertilizers.
The effect of mineral and liquid organic fertilisers on soil mineral nitrogen and chlorophyll content in winter wheat leavespg(s) 213-216
The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of mineral and liquid organic fertilisers on the accumulation of nitrate and ammonium nitrogen in a clay loam Endocalcari Endohypogleyic Cambisol and on chlorophyll content in common winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Fiori et Paol.) leaves. Ammonium nitrate was used as a mineral fertiliser. Liquid bio-fertilisers – pig slurry and anaerobic digestate – were studied with and without nitrification inhibitor (DMPP). In spring, after resumption of winter wheat vegetation, the investigated fertilizers were applied at N120 rate. Soil samples were taken from the 0-30 and 30-60 cm soil depths one and a half months after fertilisation. Dry weather prevailed during the study period. Results showed that the mineral nitrogen content in the soil varied depending on the fertiliser used and a slight effect of DMPP was observed. Compared to the unfertilised treatment, the highest and significant increase in mineral (nitrate and ammonium) nitrogen content was determined in the deeper soil layer of the mineral fertilisation treatment. Neither nitrogen rate nor fertilisers of different composition had influence on leaf chlorophyll content.
The unsustainable use of agrochemicals to protect the agricultural crops and increase the yield is one of the reasons for contamination of soil, fresh- and groundwater. As an alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides, biofertilization with plant growthpromoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can cause increasing of yield, diseases and pests resistance. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the potential of some bacterial isolates to stimulate plant growth of young melon plants of two commercial Bulgarian melon cultivars. Melon seedlings at cotyledon stage are inoculated with the bacterial isolates. 35 days after inoculation, the main growth parameters of the plants are measured: fresh and dry weight of shoots, number of leaves, length and thickness of the steam and total leaf area. The obtained results reveal that all of the tested bacterial isolates insignificantly increase the sixth plant growth indexes of Pobeditel melon plants but the best results are observed with B 92 treatment. Plants from Hybrid 1 genotype are positively and significantly influenced by all bacterial isolates. The best results are observed with B 86 treatment – up to 2.7-fold increase in total leaves area and up to 2.4-fold increase in stem length. Plants treated with B 86 also have 50-70% higher shoot fresh and dry weight, 24% thicker stems and 30% higher number of leaves compared to non-inoculated controls. Some of the tested bacterial isolates especially B92 and B97 stimulate the absorption and utilization of major nutrients as N and P.
Evapotranspiration of a strawberry, ever-bearing variety Polka in three-year (2011- 2013) field experiments with drip irrigation on leached cinnamon forest soil in the area of Chelopechene, Sofia district. Different irrigation regimes have been tested: from fully satisfying the daily needs of the crop from water to irrigation with 20% and 40% reduced irrigation rates. During the research period, the total evapotranspiration rate for the strawberry growing season was 213 mm in average. Average 24-hour values vary by date. The highest are in the first and second ten-day period of June (harvest period).
Water purification price and actuality of the problem of water depuration of the dnieper according to the theory of social welfarepg(s) 223-225
In this article we wish to evaluate efficiency of use of Dnieper cascade hydropower plants on the basis of common approaches to environmental management. We evaluate the efficiency of use the flooded areas of the hydropower station in agriculture. Dnieper reservoirs ranking on the degree of energy risk (the possibility of man-made tsunami generation) was made. There are some water depuration problem mentioned and ways to solve problem of water depuration in Dnieper river. Also in the article we want to present analysis of water depuration systems in European countries.
Deserts cover about one-fifth of the Earth’s surface and most of them have a considerable amount of specialized vegetation which is important for soil conservation..Two species of Saxaul (Haloxylon ammodendron and Haloxylon aphyllum) are the dominant plants in the vast deserts of Iran and both of them are the major plants for afforestation in the desert area. Due to the large area of land planted with Saxaul, the importance of these lands as carbon storage, become more and more. This study carried out in Boeen Zahra desert region of Iran in order to evaluate carbon storage in Saxaul Forests. Study area is located in the south of Qazvin province. Sampling was done in Saxaul (Haloxylon aphyllum) stands and the native vegetation of adjacent area (Control area). In both areas, the amounts of aboveground and underground biomass of the species were calculated by cutting and weighing the aerial parts (leaves, stem), roots, and soil Sampling was carried out to a depth of 30 cm. The comparison of the carbon content of H. aphyllum in the unit of the measuring surface and control areas showed the difference of this ability between two areas. (p<0.01). The results indicated that the total soil carbon content of H. aphyllum (1453.2 kg/ha) was significantly (p<0.01) more than the control area (314.3 kg/ha).