Table of Contents

  • New vehicles as our reality

    pg(s) 44-46

    The world is changing very fast. The future already arrived in industry. Europe and China expel classic automobiles and replace them with electrical. European Union predicts that till 2020 they will have 3,5 million electric cars and 800.000 stations for its filling. In Serbia according to the Ministry of Internal Affairs from 2011. only 114 vehicles on electric power and 90 hybrids were registered.
    The introduction of vehicles without a driver on the roads of the world will happen faster than lawmakers predicted. Recently, the countries began to discuss laws regulating autonomous vehicles, but only a few of them actually adopted such laws. California, Nevada, Michigan and Florida (USA) allow autonomous cars on the road, while their use on public roads in the states that have not enacted laws is neither illegal, nor specifically allowed.
    Experts warn that it could take decades before legislators permit the production of vehicles without manual commands and it is possible that during the transitional period when conventional and vehicles without a driver would share the road, security really could be worse. In order to get a vehicle permit, with robots and electronics in them must also stand the man, as well as the system which in the case of emergency enables taking control by man.
    The first passenger drone in the world that can independently carry one person by air got permission for testing in Nevada. In the race entered the Chinese, and the first flying car could have its first drive as soon as next year 2020. The Chinese company “Ehang” still in 2016 presented the model of unmanned aerial vehicle that can carry one person 30 kilometers by speed of 100 km/h. The “Airbus” vision of taxi that solves the problem of traffic jam by throwing away of wheels at a special station and hooking on for the roof the massive drone, to pick it up in the air at the critical moment, was presented.
    Expectations are that in this type of traffic the number of accidents would decrease for at least 90%, what would save thousands of human lives, while those who due to some limitations are not able to drive a car would not be discriminated, but could use self-driving vehicles like everybody else.

  • Evaluation of the efficiency of the vehicle with various inter-wheeled differentials for different clutch conditions on sides in acceleration regime

    pg(s) 47-50

    In this paper, the dynamics of acceleration and energy costs for cars with various types of inter-wheeled differentials are analyzed. The used dynamic models for drive with: a classical symmetric conical open differential, a fully locked differential, and limitedslip differentials for which the locking torque depends on the load or the relative speed of rotation are described. During the study, the ratios of the adhesion coefficients under the right and left sides were varied. As a result of the work, tasks are formulated for further more detailed analysis of limited-slip differentials.

  • Features of the hybrid vehicles work mode control strategy

    pg(s) 51-54

    The transmissions of HEVs or so-called hybrid transmissions (HT) are essentially power split transmissions, which almost always require planetary gears to split or sum up power. An essential prerequisite for reading and studying hybrid transmissions is the knowledge of planetary gear function and calculation. For example, the Toyota hybrid system can only be clarified using the principles of the planetary mechanism. In addition to Toyota’s decision, there are two modes of transmission (BMW, Daimler and GM) and many patent applications with similar ideas.
    Technically speaking, these solutions are power split transmissions that turn into a hybrid system by adding an electric motor (EM), an electric generator (EG) and an electric storage battery (SB). These transmissions perform the functions required for vehicles with an internal combustion engine, such as the HEV.
    These functions are launching, torque and speed conversion, reverse gear, and rapid gear-shifts in ascending or descending order. In addition, the requirements for HT are realized with the help of electronic control. For parallel HEV, a conventional gearbox plus EM is used. The automatic transmissions used in the mixed HEVs are designed with planetary gearboxes and are also known as automatic HTs. This article discusses the features of planetary gearboxes used in HEVs transmissions.

  • CO2 emissions of e-mobility

    pg(s) 55-58

    E-mobility is generally regarded as a zero emission. This sentence can only be true in a very small scope, as only in relation to selected parameters and in a very limited its dimension. An example of this is the measurement of CO2 emissions from BEV (battery electric vehicle), which is known to be zero. The situation can change radically if it will be take into account the emissions in the production of electricity that is necessary for the movement of this type of vehicles. This paper presents this problem, taking into account the energy mix in various countries of the European Union. Simulation studies show that there are already countries in the EU in which the operation of electric vehicles makes sense. Especially when it concerns CO2 emissions. Emissions below the standards for 2025 can be obtained there. Unfortunately, in most EU countries, the operation of BEV is associated with an increase (in relation to today) of CO2 emissions. Without the change of energy policy, and in particular the energy mix, the introduction of e-mobility is problematic.

  • Environmental impact of electric vehicles

    pg(s) 59-62

    The development of strategies for mitigating negative environmental impacts has been developed for a long period of time and it is actually now also. At the European level, the DIRECTIVE 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council has been adopted. This the Directive has been in force since 2014. The main objective of the Directive is to reduce the use of oil and the adverse effects caused by traffic, respectively the transition to alternative fuels. The idea of electric vehicles and theirs advantages is popularized because that. This work will highlight the need for the use of electric vehicles, as well as the development of strategies for their use. Many of the leading European and world countries already have a great deal of successful practice in sustainable development and can boast of positive results. These countries emphasize the need of using natural resources and transforming them into energy that can be used, while minimizing negative effects. Also, various innovations that influence the improvement of the quality of life and the possibilities of using electric vehicles are being developed and projected. How and to what extent electric cars and the use of alternative fuel can contribute to a better and cleaner environment has not yet been established, but it is certain that they can have a positive effect on the future.

  • Model for assessment of pollutant emissions from road transport on national roads of the Republic of Serbia

    pg(s) 63-67

    Determination the annual quantities of pollutant emissions in road transport emitted into the atmosphere, with the timely delivery of reliable information to all interested parties, conditions are created for raising the level of public awareness of environmental protection. Determining the amount of pollutants emitted facilitates monitoring of trends in order to lower the level of risk from their negative effect. This paper presents the results of calculating the amount of emitted pollutant emissions from road motor vehicles and determining emissions of pollutants on state roads I and II in the Republic of Serbia for the period 2013 to 2015 using the current version of COPERT 5 software. On the basis of the calculated emission of pollutants by shares and the belonging of the sections to the corresponding squares, the spatial distribution according to the squares of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Program (EMEP) network is shown.

  • User interface of an innovative external baggage storage system for public transportations

    pg(s) 68-69

    An innovative external baggage storage system for public transportation has been developed to ensure the ergonomic requirements. This paper proposes, for this system, a user interface that increases the level of comfort and security for train passengers. The interaction between the storage system and the final user it’s based on a complex scenario which includes the analysis of train stops time frames, type of luggage, train station configuration and the user’s age..

  • Social development management of airlines in Ukraine

    pg(s) 70-73

    The purpose of this study is to determine the importance of influencing the effectiveness of social development management of airlines in Ukraine on the economic indicators of their economic activity. The study was conducted on the example of 10 Ukrainian airlines, whose financial statements are officially available during the analysed period of 2007-2017. The results of applying the statistical analysis method showed that spending on social activities, as an indicator of social development is the largest by volume and the best in the positive dynamics of the market leader, the UIA airline. However, the use of the method of analytical alignment to analyze the impact of spending on social activities of the analyzed Ukrainian airlines on the profitability of their sales showed that the strongest impact of the results of social development management on the efficiency of economic activity are in such airlines as Constanta, Artem-Avia, Kharkiv Airlines and Dniproavia. Consequently, the main hypothesis of the study on the average importance of the impact of spending on social activities as an indicator of the effectiveness of social development management on the economic performance of airlines in Ukraine was confirmed.

  • Generating management program of the test bench SKAD-1 for computer control of automotive gasoline injection engine

    pg(s) 74-77

    The new requirements of modern automotives become more stringent corresponding to power, torque, fuel economy and ecology legislations [2]. The main factor in this area is the automotive engine fuel system, which is controlled by the electronic control unit (ECU). The electronic control of the Spark Ignition Engines (SI engines), as well as the Direct Ignition Engines (DI engines) is based on the certain sensors signals, program maps and management algorithms. The advanced automotive scientific research centres and automotive manufacturers design and develop a specialized laboratory, stationary and movable test benches and train complex for researching and testing of automotive sensors and actuators, automotive prototypes and series, and automotive units. The test benches for internal combustion engine (ICE) management are the equipment, which are used for ICE development, specification and testing. These test benches allow the engine to work at different work modes and states and ensured measurement of the engine physical work parameters. The design of the engine management test benches enable easy access to the ICE certain systems, units and details. This paper includes results of the generating a control program using the Flowcode 7.0 software of test bench SKAD-1 for computer management of automotive gasoline injection engine, with ability to programming input parameters and measuring the output results.

  • Norms and legal regulations to limit toxic emissions from internal combustion engines when using alternative fuels as environmentally eligible in relation of conventional fuels

    pg(s) 78-82

    During the decades-long development of internal combustion engines, the main criteria for optimality were the increased power, the low fuel consumption and the adjustment of the working process under non-stationary operating conditions. Even when the air quality in some settlements was significantly worsening, due to the high degree of motorization, special attention has been paid to polluting the atmosphere with exhaust gases from the engines. Problems that are created due to the increased environmental pollution significantly influence the choice of providing minimal environmental conditions, they receive priority, especially in urban areas. As toxic components are considered CO, CnNm, NOx, solid particles, etc. So if we know the conditions in which they are created then they can be the criterion for optimality. The requirements also affect their reduction within certain permitted limits.

  • Numerical analysis of in-cylinder pressure and temperature change for naturally aspirated and upgraded gasoline engine

    pg(s) 83-86

    The paper presents numerical analysis of in-cylinder pressure and temperature change for naturally aspirated gasoline engine and two of its upgrades – upgrade with turbocharger only and upgrade with turbocharger along with air cooler. Numerical analysis was performed with 0D (zero-dimensional) numerical model. In-cylinder temperatures, for each engine rotational speed, are the highest for engine upgraded only with the turbocharger. The highest observed in-cylinder temperature of turbocharged engine was obtained at 5000 rpm and amounts 2542.4 °C. In-cylinder pressures are the highest for engine upgraded with turbocharger and air cooler for all rotational speeds except the highest one. The highest observed in-cylinder pressure of a turbocharged engine with air cooler was obtained at 5000 rpm and amounts 129.7 bars. Presented analysis showed that the selected air cooler can be improved at highest engine rotational speed.