• MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS

    Exploring the Impact of Component Materials on the Energy Efficiency of Solar Panels for Water Heating: A Numerical and Experimental Investigation using labview Software

    Mathematical Modeling, Vol. 8 (2024), Issue 1, pg(s) 37-41

    This study examines the impact of component materials on the energy performance of solar panels designed for water heating. For this purpose, we have integrated numerical simulations and experimental analyzes enabled by algorithms developed with LabVIEW software. The primary objective of this investigation is to assess how the selection of materials in the construction of solar panels affects their overall efficiency in harnessing and converting solar energy into heat for water heating purposes. The research methodology involves the development and implementation of advanced algorithms using LabVIEW, a versatile software platform known for its proficiency in data acquisition, analysis, and control. Numerical simulations focus on modeling the behavior of solar panels under different conditions, taking into account factors such as radiation, temperature and the specific characteristics of different component materials. These simulations provide valuable assessments of theoretical aspects of solar panel performance and enable the identification of optimal material combinations. Through the physical model, experimental studies are conducted to validate the simulated results. Physical prototypes of solar panel components are built using various materials and their performance is rigorously evaluated under real-world conditions. Experimental measurements allow data collection, and enable comparative analysis with numerical simulations. The results of this study aim to contribute to the advancement of solar panel technology by providing a deeper understanding of how material choices affect energy efficiency. Moreover, the use of LabVIEW software in the development of algorithms ensures a systematic and accurate analysis of numerical and experimental data.

  • NATIONAL AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY

    Smart solutions for street lighting – safety at public places

    Security & Future, Vol. 7 (2023), Issue 2, pg(s) 36-39

    The importance of artificial lighting in our daily lives is growing, and street lighting has become a major focus over time. The creation of street lighting was motivated by the need to increase visual and property security and public safety. Current developments in metropolitan environments foreshadow the ‘smart cities’ of the future. The basic concept is that CCTV cameras, traffic lights and street lighting all have ‘smart functions’. Municipalities will be able to adapt to the needs of their inhabitants, thus increasing safety, comfort and energy efficiency. Given the adaptability of smart street lighting to the built environment, artificial intelligence is an essential element of smart cities, even in the systems already in place. Extensive sensor networks will facilitate the collection of environmental data by AI. In addition, unauthorised access to information available through IoT systems poses a serious threat. A critical point is the monitoring and protection of surveillance systems that are vital to the operation of smart systems.

  • SOCIETY & ”INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Design and construction based on climate scenarios and regional climate models

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 8 (2023), Issue 8, pg(s) 427-430

    The application of old climate data in the design of buildings and transport infrastructure that will be used in the future is problematic because of climate change. On the other hand, it is currently unknown what the success of human actions to limit them will be. This leads to some uncertainty about the exact parameters of the climate until the year 2100. This requires a new approach to design and construction in the context of climate change. The article examines the impact of RCP (Representative Concentration Pathway) climate scenarios and regional climate models based on them, on design and construction for energy efficiency and sustainability. The significance of different RCP scenarios and the need for spatiotemporal scaling of climate data are discussed. The disadvantages of using a static representative climatic year (as it is in the Bulgarian regulatory documents for energy efficiency) are analyzed compared to its dynamic and adaptive variant.

  • SOCIETY & ”INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Energy policy in the service of the climate – status and trends

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 8 (2023), Issue 8, pg(s) 423-426

    Despite the efforts of the world community to limit global warming by reducing the greenhouse gas emissions emitted by societies, studies show that the levels continue to rise, and this hides a number of consequences for people’s lives. The European Union, with its 8% share of generated global emissions, is not among the leaders in emitting harmful greenhouse gases, but it is among the leaders in pursuing a systematic and strict policy of climate neutrality. A European Climate Act for a green transition was introduced in 2021, setting a binding target for EU countries of net zero greenhouse gas emissions by 2050, with an intermediate target of 55% by 2030 compared to 1990 levels. The purpose of this report is to follow the policy of the Union, the state and trends in the field of energy from renewable sources and energy efficiency and the participation of Bulgaria in the progress towards achieving the set goals.

  • TRANSPORT TECHNICS. INVESTIGATION OF ELEMENTS. RELIABILITY

    Traction electric motor for battery-powered electric vehicles

    Trans Motauto World, Vol. 8 (2023), Issue 3, pg(s) 61-65

    Paper deals with a newly designed three-phase asynchronous electric motor with an application as a traction motor for driving compact battery-powered electric vehicles mainly in urban environments. The main characteristics of the motor are presented. The problems and solutions related to the sizing and optimization of the motor in the design according to various criteria and conditions are analyzed, with energy efficiency being the main determining factor.

  • INNOVATION POLICY AND INNOVATION MANAGEMENT

    Analysis of Different Energy Efficiency Technologies Based on Cost and Return of Investment

    Innovations, Vol. 11 (2023), Issue 1, pg(s) 12-13

    Application of different retrofitting technologies can play a significant role in reducing energy consumption of existing buildings. This research work analyses a building in Cork (Ireland) where underfloor heating system, and natural ventilation are used to maintain comfort conditions. Underfloor heating system is the main electricity consumer of this building. Different energy efficient technologies were implemented and analyzed in terms of reducing electricity consumption through an energy software. These technologies include replacing illumination with high efficiency light; replacement of electric motos with high efficiency; introducing underfloor heating time scheduling turning on and off based on predicted weather condition; installation of presence sensors to switch ON/OFF lighting. Finally, it was decided to implement underfloor heating time scheduling as energy efficient technology to be analyzed because of limited budget available and high return on investments provided by applying this method. Result analysis shows that electricity saving on bills was about 20% on monthly basis compared to previous consumption.

  • MACHINES

    Gastronorm Container Production with Automatic Pressure Compensation System Machine Providing Energy Efficiency with Industry 4.0

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 11, pg(s) 369-372

    With the developing food industry applications, the use of gastronorm containers is also increasing rapidly. It is widely used to transport, cook, preserve and serve gastronorm containers and food products. In line with international standards (EN 631-1, EN 631-2, etc.), the production process becomes more complex as the depth of gastronorm containers increases (from 20 mm to 200 mm / 6 different depths) and the process steps increase. Due to the errors arising from the process stages, there is an increase in the number of rejects, and thus energy efficiency is adversely affected. An automatic pressure balancing system design has been developed in accordance with the workflow in gastronorm container manufacturing with deep drawing technology. Providing the elimination of excess pressure steps and heat treatment needed in deep gastronorm containers (sizes and depths respectively: 1/2 200 mm, 1/3 150 mm, 1/3 200 mm, etc.), as well as the unique design of the integrated deburring machine, a significant innovation with industry 4.0 application has been imparted. Thus, in addition to the increase in product quality, it contributed to reducing unit costs by reducing high waste rates below 5%.

  • MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS

    Optimization of Cooling Performance of Horizontal Commercial Refrigerator Prototype with Mathematical Modeling

    Mathematical Modeling, Vol. 6 (2022), Issue 4, pg(s) 118-120

    In recent years, the problem of food safety and traceability has been one of the difficulties faced by restaurant and hotel businesses. Food spoilage can occur at any stage of the food chain; most of all food spoilage is due to improper storage conditions in refrigerators. Increasing attention to food quality and safety requires the development of sensitive and reliable analysis methods as well as innovative technologies for maintaining freshness and food quality. Freshness is a factor that has both health qualities and features that affect customer satisfaction and business profitability. Within the scope of this study, simulation studies were carried out to improve the cooling performance with mathematical modeling on a horizontal commercial refrigerator (operating temperature: -2/+8°C) prototype. Along with the original design, evaluations were made with mathematical modeling according to many different variables (temperature, airflow distribution, etc.) that affect the cooling performance, and R&D gains were achieved in developing the prototype according to the most suitable working conditions.

  • TECHNOLOGIES

    Development of Innovative Fully Automatic Processing System for High Energy Efficient Manufacturing of Commercial Cookware

    Machines. Technologies. Materials., Vol. 16 (2022), Issue 10, pg(s) 337-339

    Cookware is one of the indispensable equipment for commercial kitchens. The very large size of commercial cookware (up to Ø1200 mm) requires precision manufacturing processes. In our current manufacturing process, the fact that different processing stations are separate from each other and the processing stages are dependent on the workers, carrying risks in terms of occupational safety (cutting with scissors, grinding, etc.), prevents the product from being obtained with high processing quality and causes high wastage rates arising from the manufacturing process. In addition, it creates negative effects in terms of efficient use of energy and production time, causing an increase in unit costs. Within the scope of this study, the design and prototype production of an energy-efficient and work-safe innovative processing system for commercial cookware, based on R&D systematic studies, is carried out by international standards (EN ISO 12100, EN 614-1, EN 12983-1, etc.) and the results of our current manufacturing process. As a result of this research, occupational safety risks and excessive process steps are reduced, product quality and efficiency are increased, and thus production costs and energy efficiency are increased. Results are promising for further optimization.

  • MATHEMATICAL MODELLING OF TECHNOLOGICAL PROCESSES AND SYSTEMS

    Numerical investigation of wind-assisted ship propulsion systems

    Mathematical Modeling, Vol. 6 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 47-50

    The paper studies three of the most applicable wind-assisted ship propulsion systems: soft sails, Dynarig sails and Flettner rotors, in particular the wind forces on the sails. Traditionally, and still most reliably, these forces are determined by model testing in wind tunnels. Unfortunately, experimental results of different WAPS are quite scarce. On the other hand, the intensive development of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) nowadays allows faster and more economical evaluation of aerodynamic forces and optimization of shapes. CFD modelling is applied here for evaluation of the aerodynamic forces on sails.

  • DOMINANT TECHNOLOGIES IN “INDUSTRY 4.0”

    Low power photovoltaic system implemented by means of flexible module

    Industry 4.0, Vol. 7 (2022), Issue 2, pg(s) 54-58

    Paper deals with low power photovoltaic system implemented by means of flexible module. Flexible modules powered by sunlight are really a very interesting and promising novelty, being one of the newer alternative energy sources. A selected technical solution with specific characteristics of the individual components is presented. Measurements with digital measuring equipment were performed and experimental results were presented. In conclusion, it is summarized that the tested flexible module gives good results.

  • BUSINESS

    An assessment of energy efficiency measures in a public building in Albania in the prospect of cost and emissions reduction

    Science. Business. Society., Vol. 6 (2021), Issue 2, pg(s) 47-49

    The building sector in our country has an important share of energy consumption. According to Eurostat data, final energy consumption in the residential sector was estimated about 35 % of the total consumption. On the other hand about 75% of the electricity consumption takes place in the building sector. It should be noted that currently this sector faces many challenge, as the quality of energy supply (heating) in public buildings and the residential sector remains at low rates. Nevertheless, reducing energy consumption is one of the main targets set in the National Energy Strategy 2018-2030. By 2030 this target suggests 15.5 % of the energy reduction. This study has at its core the assessment of energy consumption in a public building placed in the city of Durres. Determining the typology and thermophysical characteristics of the building is of primary importance. The evaluation of the energy performance of the building in the dynamic regime was carried out through the Hourly Energy Analysis (HAP) software. The implementation of energy efficiency measures is carried out taking into account the energy and cost criteria. A cost analysis of EE measures was performed using the dynamic Net Present Value method.