The paper presents an overview of the solutions used in modern machines for the production of haylage such as round balers and balers. Discussed elements of systems enabling monitoring the process of bales formation and influencing its course, to improve the quality of obtained silage and increase the efficiency and ergonomics of the machine’s operation. Trends of development and reasons for increasing functional integration into single machines were determined. The paper was created as a result of cooperation between ŁUKASIEWICZ Research Network – Industrial Institute of Agricultural Engineering and METAL-FACH sp. z o.o. company located in Sokółka, Poland.
Mechanization in agriculture & Conserving of the resources
Vol. 65 (2019), Issue 2
Table of Contents
MECHANIZATION IN AGRICULTURE
Determining the optimal working modes of working combined machines in tea plantations using the theory of similarity and dimensionpg(s) 48-49
The article describes the combined aggregate that we use in the tea-growing sector, developed on the base T-16 МГЧ, on the basis of the obtained patent GE P 2016 6491 B. The theory of similarity and dimension has been used, functional connection between the optimization parameters and the acting factors is determined and the regressive equation which is the basis the optimal working modes are selected.
Substantiation of constructive parameters of the seeding machine for sowing of non flowing grass seedspg(s) 50-52
The production and breeding of new varieties of high-quality seed material is connected with the sowing of a wide range of crops with different physical and mechanical properties of seeds. In existing seeding machines, the sowing devices are capable of sowing loose and medium-flowing seeds, such as wheat, barley, rye, etc. further transport it to the working bodies for soil application. A characteristic disadvantage in the introduction of hard-flowing (non-flowing) seeds is the presence of a coagulation zone, which should be destroyed. In order to improve the quality of seeding non-flowing seeds, the design parameters of the sowing apparatus for seeding non-flowing grass seeds for moisture and energy-saving technologies in feed production will be substantiated and developed.
Promising technical solutions for the creation of technological equipment and agricultural machinery equipped with radiation sources and providing for the impact of the magnetic field on the seed (grain) material directly in the field are proposed.
Economic scheduling model for mechanical-manual manufacturing of seasonal product under uncertain supply time and quantity of the raw materialspg(s) 55-58
The research proposes a newsvendor-like model that enables determining the optimal timing for renting machinery with its operators before the arrival of the raw material, and derives an optimal manufacturing strategy. The research includes a case study with a comprehensive analysis for a blueberry harvester that demonstrates the applicability of the proposed model. The rigorous theoretical analysis of the optimal harvesting strategy is validated by numerical experiments. The presented results may help researchers and agriculture practitioners in planning mechanical-manual integrated manufacturing.
Content of this thesis is to introduce information system and its use to support decision making in the selected farm. In this thesis we looked at using information system AgroCont the company ISAT, Ltd. the holding OVD – orchards association Dvory nad Žitavou. Agricultural enterprises have to keep the required documentation on the activities on land and know it thoroughly in accordance with European Union legislation introduced in regulations of Slovak republic. Using individual modules of the system we created in-house analysis outputs. The subsequent evaluation of the information we have proposed possible solutions and changes that may be helpful for better decision making, more efficient use of labor and machinery, but also for cost savings in normal operation. In conclusion, we evaluated output, which are designed to analyze the machinery and we have proposed measures and possible changes.
In the practice of repairing the machines in agriculture, the following strategies are mainly applied: forced repairs; conducting repairs in plan order and a combined strategy with elements of both strategies.
An investigation was carried out and analytical dependencies were obtained to determine the function of the recovery (characteristic of the failure flow) of the machine components in the forced repairs (after failure), to carry out repairs in a planned order and a combined strategy with elements of the first two strategies to calculate the required pool of spare parts to maintain machine performance.
Development of innovational technologies of agricultural machines projecting and their influence on the formation of professional competencies of agricultural engineerpg(s) 66-69
The development of innovative technologies of designing agricultural machines and their influence on the formation of professional competencies of agroengineer is presented. The course designing topics and stages of work implementation are highlighted, which states that during designing a review and analysis of existing structures of this type is performed, the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials with which the machine will work (soil, seeds, fertilizers, root crops, etc.) are determined, the agrotechnical requirements and technical requirements for the car are formed, the technological scheme of the design is substantiated and the principle of its work is described, the basic technological, kinematic, hydro or pneumatic mechanical parameters, the forces acting on the working bodies, traction resistance and power consumption are determined, calculations are made for the strength of the changed structural elements, the technical passport of the machine is drawn up, the technical and economic indicators are determined, the technological scheme is drawn up, the description is made and the formula of the invention is compiled according to the requirements of the patent documents. It is noted that the successful completion of the course work on agricultural machines involves interdisciplinary connections with other disciplines, for example, such as the mechanical and technological properties of agricultural materials, the basis of engineering methods for calculation of strength and rigidity, machine parts and design principles, agriculture, the basis intellectual property, the basis of scientific research, etc. An example of an approximate algorithm for calculating and designing an agricultural machine on the example of a grain seed drill is given. The factors emphasizing the quality of preparation of agroengineering specialists, development of capabilities for performing design functions are highlighted.
CONSERVING OF THE RESOURCES
The purpose of this publication is to analyse the impact of different composition of motor biofuel mixtures on their performance properties. The use of alcohols as an additive to gasoline has a number of advantages; in particular, it reduces the amount of carbon monoxide and nitrogen emissions, as well as emissions of carcinogenic compounds. The use of biofuels will improve environmental and energy security. However, there are a number of disadvantages of such fuels, so the search for solutions to problematic issues when using biofuels with the addition of ethyl alcohol is relevant.
Production of hydroponic green fodder is an important task of agriculture, which in developed countries is given enough attention. Currently, the world’s developed a considerable number of various designs installations for the production of hydroponic products, but the main working body of these installations are trays in which the cultivation of hydroponic green fodder, as one of the most simple, but fairly effective devices for seeding, cultivation and the ready products. The main global trends in the production of hydroponic green fodder, as one of the components of the diet of poultry and cattle, are considered. The paper analyzes the operation of the workshops for the production of hydroponic products equipped with the facilities of the new design developed by us. Compared some economic characteristics of hydroponic workshops manufactured in foreign countries and developed in Ukraine. Thus, the conclusion is obvious – domestic plants for the production of hydroponic green fodder are more economical than their foreign counterparts.
Irrigation regime of green bean cultivated as an intercropping culture in unheated greenhouses with drip irrigationpg(s) 74-77
The production of green beans in plastic unheated greenhouses is relevant when grown as a intercropping culture. Rrotation of crops is an important biological factor for increasing soil fertility, and year round production of vegetables in plastic greenhouses to maximize the economic impact of these expensive facilities.
Considering the biology of the crop and especially its requirements for soil moisture, determinating for obtaining high yields and quality production is the implementation of a proper irrigation regime, as well as the use of suitable irrigation technique.
The aim of the research is to identify the main elements of the irrigation regime of green beans, cultivated as a second intercropping culture, in drip irrigation / watering and irrigation rates, interwatering periods and number of irrigations /.
Irrigation was carried out with a drip irrigation system type Drossbach. Variations have been tested at 85-90% of pre-watering humidity and 120% of irrigation rates- 120%; 100%; 80% and 60%.
It has been found that the productivity of irrigation water in drip irrigation of vegetable crops grown in unheated greenhouses is increased by reducing the irrigation rate. The highest productivity of irrigation water is achieved with the 60% irrigation rate option.
In order to establish the parameters of the dependence of irrigation norm – yields of long – fruit cucumbers a field experiment was carried out in the period 2001-2004, on a chromic luvisols soil (chromic forest soil) . Different irrigation regimes have been tested – from full satisfaction of the culture’s daily needs of water, to irrigation with irrigation norms reduced with 20% and 40% .The soil moisture content in the layer 0-0.5 m is used as a criterion for determining the time for making a polish. Under optimal variant (variant 2), the same is maintained with over 85% of WHC.
It has been found that reducing the irrigation rate leads to a corresponding reduction in yield but it is disproportionate. In all cases, the reduction in yield is less than the decrease in the irrigation rate.Parameters of “water-yield” dependency are determined by the two-step formula of Davidov, which approximates the test points by S-curve at a correlation coefficient R = 0,999. The results show the variation of yields depending on the reduction of the irrigation rate. In the calculations obtained, the values of the gradation indicators n = 2,25 and m = 1,48 can be used to optimize the irrigation regimens of long-fruit cucumbers.