Modern mobile phones with advanced functionality, known as smartphones, have many applications. A triaxial accelerometer is used to determine the current position of the smartphone in space and therefore the screen orientation. It is known that accelerometers are used to determine important operational properties of vehicles, such as dynamics and acceleration. In this regard, the purpose of this paper is to study the possibility of using a smartphone to measure the vehicle acceleration.
Trans Motauto World
Vol. 6 (2021), Issue 3
Table of Contents
TRANSPORT TECHNICS. INVESTIGATION OF ELEMENTS. RELIABILITY
The hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are promising vehicles with low exhaust emissions and increased autonomy of movement including internal combustion engine (ICE) and electric motor (EM) which is powered by the battery (B) . The main advantage of HEV over classic cars is the reduced fuel consumption, especially in urban traffic . This is a prerequisite for good energy efficiency of HEV, which is determined by the fuel consumption and consumption, respectively the regeneration of electricity of HEV. These values depend on many factors such as speed, mileage, acceleration, mass, drag, climatic conditions and more. The modelling of the energy efficiency of HEV is related to the study and structuring of the factors that determine the fuel consumption and electricity consumption and the dependencies between them and their connection and construction in a model. The model of energy efficiency of HEV gives a quantitative assessment of the fuel consumption and the consumption (regeneration) of electricity of HEV, according to the main influencing parameters. In addition, the HEV energy efficiency model indicates the influencing parameters and their analytical or experimental determination. The correct modelling of energy efficiency is related to the correct determination of energy parameters and their logical connection in a selected model. The optimal model of energy efficiency of HEV is built from these factors that can be directly measured or calculated, which increases the accuracy and reliability of the results. This article discusses building an energy efficiency model of a hybrid electric vehicle.
In the Republic of Kosovo, the unemployment rate has an increasing trend, the average monthly income is still low, which makes it impossible to buy a new vehicle, so they are forced to buy vehicles imported from European countries, which have a h igh rate of amortization.
Citizens who own used vehicles are obliged to perform services that cost less by avoiding quality equipment and replacing them with non-know manufactures for spare parts which cost cheaper compared to manufacturers of well-known and guaranteed brands. The use of such spare parts is directly affecting the increase in the number of accidents in the territory of the Republic of Kosovo. In this paper is study the efficiency of brake pads from different manufacturers – brands in the term of the braking system in passenger vehicles such as: braking time, maximum deceleration and braking distance. The tests were done with used vehicles equipped with the ABS system, on roads with dry asphalt. The used tires are from radial construction with summer characteristics. Depending on the treated methodology, the adequate equipment such as Xl meter, video cameras and meter are used. The obtained results through the decelerometer device (Xl meter) for deceleration of the vehicle and other indicators of the efficiency of the braking system has done with the case of emergency braking. Prior to each test, the predicted used vehicle has performed also technical inspection of the vehicle braking system in the Licensed Centers for technical inspection of the vehicle.
TRANSPORT. SAFETY AND ECOLOGY. LOGISTICS AND MANAGEMENT
The eco car of the year 2020 was the “Corolla HB” 1.8 HSD. The French made the original car, after the new “Peugeot 208”, the base is the same as in the model “2008”, which is 25 cm longer, the wheelbase is 2.6 meters and it is dominated by power. Its maximum speed is 198 kilometers/h. No one can compare to the French “lion”. “Mercedes” announced that Formula 1 drivers will drive completely black cars instead of the “silver arrow” in the upcoming season, thus promising the fight against racism and increasing diver sity in their champion team.
The auditing company “Deloitte” claims that the automobile industry in the world is about to collapse due to the consequences of the Corona virus pandemic. The Covid-19 pandemic is not subsiding, now Mexico and the Brazil are the most endangered. During the epidemic in Serbia in April this year, the production of motor vehicles and trailers decreased by 84%, and in Kragujevac based “Fiat” was faced not only with a lack of demand, but also with a lack of parts for production. During the state of emergency, truckers were particularly endangered and suffered heavy losses. Losses in the passenger domestic and international bus traffic were then estimated at 2 8 million euros.
Despite the pandemic that reigns, “Renault” has confirmed its leading position on the European el ectric car market. The “Renault Zoe” is the best-selling vehicle in its class. “Renault Kangu ZE” achieved the highest sales in the class of electric commercial vehicles. And the offer of electric vehicles for the new 2021 will be enriched by “Renault Twingo Electric” and “Dacia Spring”.
At the end of 2020, the two automotive groups received the consent to merge. “Fiat” and “Peugeot” have joined forces to neutralize the negative effects of the slowdown in demand and more easily bear the costs of producing cleaner vehicles, in order to meet the requirements of the stricter gas emission regulations. The emergence of “Stellantis” will contribute to the expansion of the market.
Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is a solution, which unites travel services by integrating multimodal route planning, reservation, payment, and ticketing options. MaaS development mainly focus on the provision of a user-centered, intelligent, and personalized urban solution with the cooperation of public and private transportation service providers. The main point of the concept is that a new actor, the MaaS operator, is being established between the transportation service and the user. The establishment of the MaaS concept might happen on different integration levels. Examining the international market, the applications in the comparison do not differ to a great extent. The basis of the realization when developing MaaS is the provision of a high level of service with real time route planning and electronic payment for public transport services. There is a huge interest of providing a suitable MaaS solution by overcoming the technological challenges, by setting of business models, and by examining its applicability in a real-world environment.
Status and characteristics of freight traffic with special reference to road traffic in Montenegro and comparison with the EUpg(s) 92-95
The subject of this paper is the review and analysis of freight transport in Montenegro. Road freight transport has been growing steadily over the past few years. Rail, sea and air transport of the third are accompanied by numerous oscillations. The a rticle provides an overview of freight transport for EU countries as well. Freight transport in Montenegro differs from EU countries. In the last few years, work has been done on improving freight transport in Montenegro. These improvements are specifically related to infrastructure improvements, especially in road transport.
Very popular among the environment activists and public authorities, the rolling highways prove to have a poor commercial viability. Therefore, the paper tries to find the reasons for this fact. The analysis starts with the descriptions of the technical solutions, then the traffic volumes recorded on different transport relations / countries are presented, together with the main findings from the European experience. The trends are explained considering the operational issues, the transport costs, the factors influencing the demand, the state support and the railway regulations, as well as the requirements of the customers. Special comments are focused on the Romanian experience, indicating the operational issues specific to Romania, the necessity for state aids with intensities of 45 – 60% from the costs, as well as the savings in external costs. The main conclusions are that the rolling highways are environmentally friendly, but costly and that they could develop only if the public authorities implement appropriate support measures and aids.
Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique for detection of trace elements in Particulate Matter emitted from in-use Diesel engine passenger vehiclespg(s) 104-109
The particulate matter (PM) and soot emissions generated from Diesel combustion engine driven vehicles are forming significant sources of toxic and metallic nanoparticles into the air and surrounding atmosphere in heavily traffic areas or locations. Previously, we reported that particulate matter from in-use Diesel engine passenger vehicles are chemically composed of major and minor chemical elements with different concentration. Here, we apply laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique for qualitative comparative study of trace chemical elements adsorbed in different PM and soot matrices. The adsorption of these chemical elements in generated PM exhaust emissions occurs due to the complex combustion processes. The main responsible sources are: injected fuel type (Diese l, Biodiesel), fuel quality, fuel additives, engine lubricants, engine combustion process, incomplete catalytic reaction, inefficient PM filterin g devices, engine failure or polluted intake air. All these factors as well as current engine state alter final chemical composition of particulate matter generated from in-use Diesel engine passenger vehicles -exhaust emissions.
The crowning of the historic aspirations of European integration, means that the Tirana-Durrës region should be able to compete as equal with other regions in Europe. So, on the one hand, the opportunities for its economic development will increase, but on the other hand, competition will intensify with other regions. This will require economic sophistication in the Tirana – Durres area, which will also be a challenge for the next decade. On the road to becoming one of the Balkans Hub, among the main objectives remain: improving infrastructure and mobility in the Region, increased competition, improving the quality of life, protection and rational utilization of natural resources. Although competitive advantage at national level has been enormous compared to other regions, at the Balkan and European levels, this advantage is lesser and controversial. Consequently, it is necessary to create a platform on which it is based d evelopment and increase the competitiveness with the regions around our country. Seeing that road networks have heavy traffic, other modes of transport and their coordination need to take on a growing role. An efficient policy in this regard would be the construction of a Freight Transport Interport, with a contemporary logistics and integrated with Intelligent Transport Systems. This would be a new junction in the supply chain and would provide a solution to transport systems, developing in full harmony the interaction of Road, Rail and Maritime Transport infrastructure. In addition to the study of the respective legal framework that would support the planned interventions for the realization of ITMTD, this paper presents the results of the SWOT analysis as a recognized way of identifying, comparing and evaluating the advantages, weaknesses, opportunities and risks of a project.
VEHICLE ENGINES. APPLICATION OF FUELS TYPES. EFFICIENCY
Normally, maritime, air and surface transport assets powered by internal combustion engines are the major sources of chemical, biological and physical pollution of the environment. In the meantime, oil shortage and world oil prices are rising every year, which raises questions on the use of alternative energy sources that are not fossil fuels.
At the present time, natural gas as one of the types of fuel is widely and successfully used in surface transport owing to the availability of their sufficient reserves and good thermophysical characteristics. The article deals with the prospects for natural gas production in the sea and the possibilities of utilizing its energy source in small-capacity marine and river transport equipment in both diesel-cycle and directly converted to natural gas-powered diesel engines.